Writing Services by Citation Style

There are various kinds of citation styles that are followed by universities across the globe. Each citation style is unique to a certain subject discipline. Students should always declare the citation style and, if necessary, formatting style for their papers to best meet their university requirements. Here are some of the most commonly used citation styles:

MLA

MLA stands for Modern Language Association. This referencing style is majorly used in humanities and arts to cite sources and write papers. It is codified in the MLA Handbook for writers of research papers (7th ed.) and the format of MLA works cited page, MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes is provided by MLA Style Manual and Guide to scholarly publishing (3rd edition).

Reference to an unpublished (not necessarily an original source) or a published source in an academic write- up is how citation is generally defined. Technically speaking, a citation is an expression in the form of alphabets and numbers mentioned in the body of an academic work which represents an entry in the bibliography section of the work as an acknowledgement of the intellectual works of others on the subject at the spot where the citation appears. The in-body citation and the bibliographic entry together constitute a citation whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not citations.

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APA

APA stands for American Psychological Association. APA referencing style is most frequently used in the social sciences, in order to cite various sources. Reference to an unpublished (not necessarily an original source) or a published source in an academic write- up is how citation is generally defined.

Technically speaking, a citation is an expression in the form of alphabets and numbers mentioned in the body of an academic work which represents an entry in the bibliography section of the work as an acknowledgement of the intellectual works of others on the subject at the spot where the citation appears. The in-body citation and the bibliographic entry together constitute a citation whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not

The in-body citation and the bibliographic entry together constitute a citation whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not citation. The style guide of American Psychological Association (APA), titled the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), (6th ed) is its codified version. The APA Citation Guide is revised as per the 6th edition of the APA Manual which provides the general APA format for APA in-text citations and the APA reference page. 

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Harvard

There are many styles of referencing followed by many universities. So, while you do your thesis make sure to have a word with your instructor and confirm the style of referencing followed. University of Harvard has published many editions of citation which are used widespread in most of the accredited universities.

Many universities prefer Harvard style referencing as it is an in-text citation style. In particular, there are two major parts in the Harvard reference style is in-text referencing and the list of references to be added at the end of your document. Harvard referencing needs accurate data of all the information required to reference in the right way.

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Turabian

A manual published by the University of Chicago Press for writers of a dissertation, research papers and thesis. This style described in this manual is commonly referred as Turabian referencing style or Turabian style after the manual’s original author, Kate L. Turabian who had originally developed it for the University of Chicago.

Essentially, it is a style guide for formatting and writing research papers, for example, the arrangement, punctuation of the Turabian footnotes, Turabian bibliographies etc. In order to reflect the recommendations of the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and to present an extended array of source types and updated examples including ways of citing electronic sources, its eighth edition has undergone a massive revision.

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Oxford

Oxford referencing style is the documentary-note style citation system which was developed by the University of Oxford. It is based on the Oxford style manual, 6th edn, 2002 for authors, editors and printers. Also Oxford style manual, 6th edn, 2002 should not be confused with Oxford university style guide which provides the rules for formatting and writing documents written by staff on behalf of The University of Oxford or one of its departments. It is not intended for the public or external use and to compete with other professional dictionaries, writing guides.

There are various universities like the University of Western Australia, University of Waikato, University of Southern Queensland, Deakin University, Umea University, Victoria University etc which prefer Oxford style referencing for citing sources in their academic submissions.

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Chicago

Bibliography and notes and author-date are the two major types of documentation is found in Chicago style citations. Depending upon the subject of research and nature of the sources used in the research, the type of Chicago citation can be chosen and it also depends upon the scholars and the Chicago style citations they prefer. Originally created and maintained by the University of Chicago, it bears a close resemblance to Turabian style with certain differences. The reason to maintain to separate styles is because each caters to a specific discipline.

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