Dissertation Findings

Dissertation findings is the chapter where you sew up various threads of the research into a organized narrative. Therefore, rather than finishing this section in a hurry you must pull yourself back and take a look entire research once again.

The foremost thing which you need to think while drafting the chapter is ‘how to organize the findings?’

This section represents a story; however, students often overstate in this section which should not be done.

So, if you are wondering how to balance your dissertation findings section, then first you should understand its concept.

What is dissertation findings chapter all about?

The findings section presents the story in response to the result you have attained from your investigation. Therefore, you should organize this section in a way that gives clarity about your findings and makes sense to you and the evaluator.

In this section you need to plan as to how you will draft the findings in a way so that they are both responsive as well as compelling to the research question which you have worked upon. These questions may not be the ones that had considered to answer but should be the question which you have already answered.

The importance of dissertation findings

The findings chapter presents the conclusions you have made from your investigation along with relevant evidences. This is the section where the writer presents the findings first by the research question followed by the theme.

Since this is the section where your evaluator gets to know about the evidences, proofs and supporting statements; it must be written meticulously. Errors and false statements are a strict no-no in this section of your dissertation.

Once you have decided about how you want to write the dissertation finding section, you need to differentiate between organizing the raw data and utilizing the information as an evidence or supporting statement for the research.

There are ample things which needs to be kept in mind while writing the findings section, let us understand how to go about it.

How to write the dissertation findings?

Following are some of the points which are to be considered while drafting your findings:

  • The findings section must provide appropriate and relevant evidence to support the conclusions and outcome which you have presented.
  • You must have adequate evidences as a back up to support your findings. Basically, you should have confidence in your findings and be ready for counter evidences.
  • The findings should be linked with your conceptual framework.
  • This section should be an answer, solution or response to the research question.
  • You must focus on presenting the data which answers the research questions.
  • Findings section should be to-the-point, all irrelevant and unnecessary details should be avoided.

Most of the times in a rush to finish the dissertation the students end up putting unnecessary details in this section. This is where they may lose out grades. Taking help from findings writing service professionals is a better option than putting irrelevant information just to finish up the dissertation.

Sample: A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF BRAND DESIGN ON CUSTOMER PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR: A CASE STUDY OF MARKS & SPENCER, UK

Chapter 4

Findings and analysis

4.0 Introduction

The data accumulation from the selected samples has been illustrated in the existing section. Conversely, the data illustration is done explicitly for the quantitative data as qualitative details have been collected in a descriptive format.  The previous feedbacks are illustrated through tables and graphs, and consequently the findings are derived from the same. The findings will further assist the reader to be conscious of the probable conclusion of the project.

On the other hand, the qualitative information would be elaborated in the same manner as it has been collected from the experts. Since, the details are descriptive in format, thus, cannot be measured.

Quantitative questions:

  1. Are you brand conscious?

Table 1: Customers ‘opinion on brand consciousness

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Yes 34 70 49%
No 26 70 37%
Neutral 10 70 14%

 

Figure: Customers ‘opinion on brand consciousness

Findings and analysis

The responses received from the chosen samples were indifferent in nature. However, the majority of the respondents were in the favour of the present subject. 49% of the samples have agreed of being brand conscious in the present period. On the other hand, 37% of the respondents have stated of not being brand conscious and purchase products based on its quality. Lastly, 14% of the respondents have preferred being neutral.

The total feedback states that majority of the customers in the present period are brand conscious. Therefore, the customers have already generated loyalty towards the existing brands, therefore, prefer purchasing the products from the preferred brands. To justify the previous context, Choi and Ahluwalia (2013) determined that customer’s judge the product quality offered by the organisations which has a strong brand presence in the market (refer to section 2.1). Therefore, it is very important for the retail brands in the UK market to form a strong brand design to create an indifferent identity in the market.  Against the latter statement, Chao et al. (2015) besides brand identity customers often judge products by its qualities (refer to section 2.1). Various popular retailers like Tesco, ASDA, etc has already experienced high customer switchover rate for its degraded product and service quality. Conversely, since the survey report indicates that majority of the customers are brand conscious, therefore, it can be inferred that customers purchasing decisions are little biased towards brand identity.

  1. Do you have any specific brand preference from your apparels?

Table 2: Customers’ preference towards brand for apparels

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Yes 30 70 43%
No 24 70 34%
Neutral 16 70 23%

 

Figure: Customers’ preference towards brand for apparels

 

Findings and analysis

In the context of the present subject, the respondents have provided mixed responses. Majority feedbacks of the samples have supported the present context. 43% of the samples have agreed to have preference towards a specific brand for apparels. 34% of samples have claimed of not having any specific brand preference for apparels. On the other hand, 23% of respondents have preferred being neutral on the specific subject.

The gathered opinions indicates that the majority of the respondents have definite preference towards brands for the apparel products. In the circumstance of the similar statement, Ju-Pak (2013), the brands operating in the UK retail industry had to adjust to the frequently changing needs and buying habits of the customers (refer to section 2.1). The evolving fashion trends have enforced different challenges towards the fashion brands. Moreover, Lee et al. (2011) mentioned that customers believe that the popular brands offer the feasible features, images and standard quality at the right price (refer to section 2.1). Hence, it could be inferred from the previous statements that in the UK fashion industry, customers generate trust and faith based on the brand identity and design. Moreover, customers are getting more typical with the fashion products and prefer purchasing products from organized retail stores to maintain its proclaim society status. Therefore, majority of the purchasing decision of the UK customers for the fashion apparels are inclined towards brand name rather on product quality.

  1. Do your purchasing intention vary with brand design?

Table 3: Influence of brand design on customers’ purchasing intention

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Highly agree 22 70 31%
Agree 15 70 21%
Neutral 9 70 13%
Disagree 13 70 19%
Highly disagree 11 70 16%

 

Figure: Influence of brand design on customers’ purchasing intention

Findings and analysis

31% of the respondents are of the opinion that the purchasing decision considerably vary as per brand design. 21% of the samples have just agreed to the fact. On the other hand, 19% of the samples have disagreed to existing subject and claimed of not getting influence by the brand design.

The collective opinions of the customers signify that the purchasing intention of maximum customers varies with its brand design. Lee et al. (2011) asserted that majority of the UK retails brands are following the different marketing policies in order to differentiate its brand name and designs to attract the potential prospects in the UK market (refer to section 2.1).  In the similar context, Luk et al. (2013) mentioned that in simple words brand design could be termed as the policies followed by an organisation to attract the target customers through diverse means of marketing techniques like advertisements and logos (refer to section 2.1). Therefore, it can be understood that with the support of the brand designs, the organisations intend to maintain a stronger relationship with the customers for a longer period. Furthermore, it could be identified that the companies are designing its brands as per the preferences of the present customers. As a result, different UK retail enterprises promote its brand design on the social networking sites. Mulyanegara (2011) determined that presently the social media platforms are widely used to enrich the brand present in the UK market (refer to section 2.1).

  1. Tick on the following factors that affect your purchase for apparels

Table 4: Factors that affect your purchase for apparels

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Marketing campaigns 14 70 20%
Economic conditions 16 70 23%
Personal choices 13 70 19%
Group influence 18 70 26%
Purchasing power 9 70 13%

Figure: Factors that affect your purchase for apparels

Findings and analysis

In the context of the present subject, the chosen samples have provided diversified feedback. 26% of the respondents denoted group influence to be the major factor that affects customers’ purchasing decisions for apparels. Moreover, 23% of the respondents have reported for economic conditions and 20% of the sample believes marketing campaigns to be the major facts that affect purchasing decisions for the fashion products.

Inference can be drawn from the customers’ responses that group influence is the primary factor that creates a direct impact on customers’ purchasing intensions. When it comes to fashion products, the customers are considerably influenced by the work of mouth communication. The customers have the tendency to believe the feedbacks of the other customers with respect to a brand or any product. In the similar context, Chao et al. (2015) suggested that the UK customers get influenced by the chief groups like classmates, friends, family members, relative and neighbours (refer to section 2.2). It has been identified the group influence habits of the UK customers turns in favour of the older brands that has already managed to create a better identity in the UK market. Against the latter statement, Olsen and Lanseng (2012) claimed that advertisements are determined to bring greater shifts in the customers’ purchasing attitudes in the present days (refer to section 2.2). The advertisement generally interests the customers regarding the products. However, the final decision depends on the quality of the chosen products.

  1. Do you purchase M&S’ products for its brand name or for its quality?

Table 5: Reasons behind customers purchasing M&S’ products

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Brand name 40 70 57%
Quality 30 70 43%

Figure: Reasons behind customers purchasing M&S’ products

Findings and analysis

The respondents have provided diversified respondents with regards to the present subject. 57% of the samples denoted brand name to be major reasons that drivers customers to prefer M&S over other brands in the UK market. On the other hand, 43% of samples claimed of purchasing products of M&s due to its product quality.

It could be inferred from the responses that majority of M&S’ customers prefer purchasing products due to its brand names. This means that M&S has considerably has managed to create a good brand reputation in the markets, which influenced greater customers loyalty than its competitors. Luk et al. (2013) mentioned that M&S allows its users to browse the catalogue or scan barcodes and explore product based information (refer to section 2.3). Customers are permitted with the authority of choosing the order on the device and collect at a later date or have the product delivered. It has been identified  that the M&S in the present time has managed to introduce various brand design initiatives, which made easier for the customers to even shop though its online portals. Vazifehdoost (2014) stated that customers seem to have enjoyed the shopping from mobiles, laptops and tablets, which encouraged the brand to increase its sales on a random basis (refer to section 2.3). However, Schneider et al. (2013) argued that the UK customers have become serious regarding apparel purchases, hence, despite brand reputations, UK customers initially researches to understand the values that can be derived from the products. Based on which the purchasing decisions are made. Thus, even the well reputed brands like M&S requires to have explicit focus on its product and service quality to retain its customers loyalty and goodwill.

  1. Are you satisfied with M&S’ products?

Table 6: Customers’ perceptions on M&S’ products

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Highly satisfied 29 70 41%
Satisfied 13 70 19%
Neutral 8 70 11%
Dissatisfied 11 70 16%
Highly dissatisfied 9 70 13%

Figure: Customers’ perceptions on M&S’ products

Findings and analysis

 The responses received from the chosen samples were different from one another. However, the feedbacks of majority of the samples were in support of the present subject. 41% of samples claimed of being highly satisfied with M&S’ products. 19% respondents were just satisfied with the product lines of M&S. Conversely, 16% of the respondents have contradicted the subject and reported of not being satisfies with its product offerings.

The overall responses of the respondents shows that majority of M&S’ customers are satisfied with its products. As per the feedbacks, besides the branding and marketing activities, M&S firmly looks over its product qualities and customer perceptions. For its potential customers, the brand has introduced browse and order hubs in store, where the customers are selects a product online and collect it from stores as per convenience. Luk et al. (2013) determined that browse and order hubs in store strategy is taken to familiarise the offline customers with the M&S online catalogue, which is considered to be a smart move as M&S has 6 million customers that have never used its website before (refer to section 2.3). Thus, it has been inferred that the customers have found the process interesting enough to visit even its online platform and to purchase selected products through collect-in-store policy.

7. What are the frequent issue you faced with M&S’ services?

Table 7: Issues customers faced in M&S’ services

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Website shutdown 20 70 29%
Challenges in the clothing section 50 70 71%

Figure: Issues customers faced in M&S’ services

Findings and analysis

71% of the respondents have reported that challenges in the clothing section has been the frequent issue the customers face in M&S’ services. On the other hand, 29% have claimed that website shutdown is major issue the customers face in M & S’ services.

The responses of the customers signifies that majority of the customers believe that that challenges in the clothing section has been the major issue in M&S’ services. It has been identified that M&S has been considered as the brand of contrast. The food and beverage section of the brands has been performing relatively well, however, the customers are facing issue with its fashion segments. Luk et al. (2013) stated the customers also provided feedbacks of less availability f products in the fashion segment (section 2.4). It has been identified that the supermarket section of M&S is comprised of +48 stocks as compared to +41 for fashion segment. Inference can be drawn from the previous content that the product department of fashion units somehow failed to understand the recent trends. It has been observed that customers of M&S’ are not satisfied with its product lines and its designs. The design of the apparels is outdated, which failed to mitigate the recent trends. Therefore, M&S customers have claimed to trust the food section of the brand but not the fashion division (Luk et al. 2013, refer to section 2.4)

  1. Do you find M&S’ fashion segment getting stagnant with time?

Table 8: Customers’ opinion for M&S’ fashion segment

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Highly agree 28 70 40%
Agree 14 70 20%
Neutral 8 70 11%
Disagree 11 70 16%
Highly disagree 9 70 13%

Figure: Customers’ opinion for M&S’ fashion segment

Findings and analysis

40% of the respondents highly agrees to the fact that M&S’ fashion segment getting stagnant with time. 20% of the respondents of the have just agreed to the fact that M&S’ fashion division is getting saturated with time and lagging in latest collection. However, 16% of samples have disagreed to the subject and claimed of being satisfied with M&S’ fashion collections.

The collective feedback of the respondents shows that the maximum percentages of M&S’ customers believes that its fashion segment is getting stagnant with time. Ahmad and Thyagaraj (2015) claimed that M&S’s clothing prices ranges have been excessive high and promotional with the shoppers prompt to wait for special offers before purchasing (refer to section 2.4). However, the customers complained that the brand had focused more on a promotion that the product quality. It has been identified that the majority of its customers believe the product benefits highlighted in the promotions are not true in reality. The quality standards are declining with times, therefore, the brands is continuously losing its customers base. Olsen and Lanseng (2012) claimed that that the customers are relatively satisfied with the trends of the apparels (refer to section 2.4). However, the brand has failed to maintain the quality of the products. Since greater complaints were registered against its degraded product quality.

  1. Are you a frequent user of M&S’ Click and collect-in-store service?

Table 9: Frequent user of M&S’ Click and collect-in-store service

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Yes 32 70 46%
No 22 70 31%
Neutral 16 70 23%

Figure: Frequent user of M&S’ Click and collect-in-store service

Findings and analysis

The responses of the samples were of diversified in nature. Conversely, the majority of the feedback were in support of the existing context. 46% of the samples have denoted of being the frequent user of M&S’ Click and collect-in-store service. On the other hand, 31% of the respondents have contradicted the present subject. 23% of the respondents have preferred being neutral to the present subject.

Inference can be drawn from the gathered feedback that majority of the customers are the frequent users of M&S’ Click and collect-in-store service. It has been inferred that the customers likes the concept of selecting the products online and collecting the apparel from the store after judging its quality and sizes. M&S planned to incorporate the click and collect-in-store strategy, where the customers can already select a product online and collect it from physical outlets after verifying the size and quality (Econsultancy, 2017, refer to section 2.3). The specific service has interested the customers who generally avoid purchasing products online due to product discrepancies and wrong sizes. The survey result also claims that in 2013, 40% of UK customers have adopted the collect-in-store options. However, the ratio has increased by 20% in the next year (Econsultancy, 2017, refer to section 2.3). Therefore, the specific policy has also helped the UK customers to select the product from M&S.com and verify the products from the physical outlets.

  1. Does M&S’ branding through individual online platform influenced your purchasing behaviours?

Table 10: Impact of M&S’ branding through individual online platform on customers’ purchasing behaviours

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Highly agree 30 70 43%
Agree 14 70 20%
Neutral 7 70 10%
Disagree 10 70 14%
Highly disagree 9 70 13%

Figure: Impact of M&S’ branding through individual online platform on customers’ purchasing behaviours

Findings and analysis

In the context of the present subject, the respondents have provided indifferent opinions.  Conversely, majority of the responses were inclined towards the support of the present subject.  43% of the samples have highly agreed to have increase purchase from M&S from its individual online platform. Moreover, 20% of the respondents have just agreed to subject. On the other hand, 14% of the have disagreed to the context and stated of not purchasing products from M&S’ individual online platform.

The gathered data infers that majority of M&S’ customers has increasing the purchase after the brands has introduced in online platform. It has been observed that the customers in the present days are highly inclined towards the ecommerce sites, therefore, M&S has also inditoduced its online platforms from where the customers can easily select the products and receive through online delivery system. The customers are of the opinion that the products available in the websites were far better that the physical outlets. Therefore, majority of the customers have shown interest in purchasing M&S’ apparels explicitly from its online platforms.  Luk et al. (2013) mentioned that before launching the flagship, M&S used to display its products in Amazon’s portals (refer to section 2.3). However, to create a flexible and powerful platform, the management of the brand has planned to create individual flagship to accomplish continuous improvement by getting the support of right skills and innovation. It has also been observed that online offerings has further helped the brand to increase its online sales by 23% (corporate.marksandspencer.com, 2017, refer to section 2.3).

  1. Tick on the following alternative which you want M&S to include for better services?

Table 11: Suitable alternatives for M&S to improve its service lines

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Improving fashion section 14 70 20%
Product availability 26 70 37%
Advanced technology 30 70 43%

Figure: Suitable alternatives for M&S to improve its service lines

Findings and analysis

In the context of the existing subject, 43% of the respondents have denoted advanced technology to be the best recommended strategy M&S shall incorporate within its operation to improve its present service lines. On the other hand, 37% of the samples are of the opinion that product availability would be the best possible strategy that can help M&S to improve its service lines. Moreover, 20% of the respondents believe improving the fashion section would be the best effective effort by the brand to amplify its present service offerings and increase customers base in the UK market.

The feedbacks of  the respondents denote that majority of the customers have faced issues due to its ineffective technical services, therefore, the customers prefer the brand to improve its technical measures to provide better service offerings to the potential customers. In the circumstance of the similar context, Luk et al. (2013) mentioned the customers also gained a negative impression of the brand due to a technical issue on the website, where the customers were able to watch the personal account details of the other customers (refer to section 2.5).  The customers generally felt the online portal of the brand to be unsafe, where the confidential details of the other customers could be easily accessed. Moreover, the CRM department of the brand was relatively inefficient to resolve the issue. As per the statement of Fiorella (2012), the customers claimed to receive communication regarding he technical issues after a longer period of registering complaints (refer to section 2.5). This has caused M&S to expertise a high customers switchover rate in the UK market. Therefore, as per the opinions of the customers, the brand needs to work on its technical issues to retain the customers’ trusts.

  1. Will you prefer visiting M&S’ stores if the brand increases its collections?

Table 12: Customer’ frequency of visits with M&S’ increasing collections

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Yes 39 70 56%
No 21 70 30%
Neutral 10 70 14%

 Figure: Customer’ frequency of visits with M&S’ increasing collections

Findings and analysis

The reactions of the samples were different from one another. However, the opinions were in favour of the brand. 56% of the samples have respondent to increase its store visit if the fashion collections are increased. On the other hand, 30% of the samples have contradicted the subject. Finally, 14% of the respondents have preferred being neutral on the present context.

The reactions of the respondents reflect that M&S has still managed to retain the loyalty of its potential customers. Therefore, majority of the customers have agreed to purchase the fashion apparels if M&S manage to increase its collections. It has been observed that brand has been able to retain its customers for the supermarket segment, thus, it could be inferred that the similar sets of customers have already formed loyalty towards its supermarket sections. Moreover, the survey also highlighted another significant points that majority of M&S’ customers for supermarket division is female, which could be a potential lead for M&S for its fashion section.   Female customers easily get influenced by the clothes and apparel sections, hence, the similar customers can be easily converted for its fashion products once the collections are increased. Considering the statement of Olsen and Lanseng (2012) mentioned that the food and drink division of the brand has been performing resolutely while its fashions segment is facing relative problems (refer to section 2.4). On the other hand, the customers have shown a better loyalty towards M&S food and beverage sections but not on its fashion products due to its old collections (Luk et al. 2013, refer to section 2.4). Thus, the probability of getting better customers response with increasing fashion collection is high.

Qualitative questions:

  1. Do you consider brand design as an influential factor to derive customer purchasing intention?

All of the managers have agreed an influence of brand design towards purchasing intentions of the customers. However, all the managers have different viewpoint regarding degree of influence over the purchasing behaviour of the consumers. One manager has denied much influence of brand design of clothing and fashion accessories as customers’ purchasing decision is mainly influenced by purchasing power. According to this manager, the design of branded clothing does not yield higher intention of buying instead of high purchasing capacity of a customer can influence buying decision (section 2.2). However, three other managers have expressed positively for brand factor. Al of these managers believes that purchasing intention can be derived through design of a brand. This statement is justified in this context as Lee et al. (2011) has supported the concept by discussing influencing power of brand image for creating purchasing preference (in section 2.1). These managers have explained that customers’ preference to buy fashion products is inclined with brand image of a particular brand. Such type of preferences also creates brand loyalty among customers for high-end fashion. The last manager has stated that design of a brand has to change dynamically due to change in taste of the customers. Therefore, purchasing intention can influence brand design often due to change in taste and preferences. The statement is align with the researched conclusion of Ju-Pak (2013) where researcher clearly concluded about influence of changing customers’ habits in fashion industry on adjustment of brand designing.

  1. What according to you are major factors affecting customer purchasing intention in your brand?

In the context of the similar statement, 2 of the managers of M&S believe that purchasing power of the customers has been the major factor that majorly affecting purchasing intention for the products of the brand. It has been observed that customers’ purchasing behaviour is directly influenced by its income statement. To justify the previous statement, Shashikala and Suresh (2013) discussed that products lines of a might be excellent, but in case it fail to mitigate the customers’ purchasing ability; it might hold back the sales growth of the brand (refer to section 2.2). The managers further explained that majority of the customers rejects the fashion garments after looking at the price tags. It means that the customers’ incomes are not definite to afford the high price range of the products. The second manager of the brand believes personal choices to be the primary factor behind customers’ purchase intentions for apparels. In the similar context, Mulyanegara (2011) specified that that in the apparel industry the trend, style and fun are the prevailing factors that influence customers’ purchasing behaviours in the UK market (refer to section 2.2). It has been identified that every customer has individual dress code preference, which likely matches to the preferences of few of the customers. Therefore, the fashion brands like M&S some manage to identify the fashion trends and put effort to keep collections of the preferred dress codes. In the circumstance of the present statement, Vazifehdoost (2014) asserted that at a personal level, customers’ purchasing behaviours in the UK market are influenced by several shades of likes, dislikes, value, moral and priorities (refer to section 2.2). The opinion of 3rd managers is inclined towards marketing campaigns. The manager stated customers’ reactions changes with every promotions, therefore, marketing campaign is the major factor influencing customers’ demand for fashion products. It has been observed that aadvertisement plays a considerable role in influencing the purchasing behaviours of the consumers in the UK retail market., Olsen and Lanseng (2012) claimed that advertisements are determined to bring greater shifts in the market shares of the brands that manage to attract greater customers base towards its products (refer to section 2.2). The managers further started that if marketing can be done on persistent internals, the customers purchasing decisions for M&S products can be relatively influenced. Lastly, the 5th managers’ denoted group influences to be responsible behind customers’ purchase intentions. The manager explained that customers’ purchasing intention for almost all FMCG products are influenced on either word of mouth communication or group interactions.

  1. How far your brand designs has impacted on your customers’ purchasing behaviours?

In this context, the first manager has depicted that branding through official online platform, which is dedicated to the business, can grow revenue. It depicts the truth that individual framework of online promotion of products can eventually enhance customers’ preference towards a particular company (Richard and Bagozzi, 2011). The second manager has said the same point with a precaution in voice regarding the maintenance and creation of online branding path with right skills. In the current context, M&S has started to brand its products in its own online channel instead of building online brand in Amazon (section 2.3). Thereby, it has ensured higher profitability in this model of brand designing of the business (Luk et al. 2013). The third and fourth managers have appraised for click and collect-in-store strategy of M&S more than other online promotion of brand design. Both of the managers have witnessed high level of application in this branding segment by the customers to select the products by online mode whereas collecting the same in a physical store. The statement is in line with the past research where Vazifehdoost (2014) said to witnessing huge customer base is present to collect products in fashion category after reserving the rights in online mode. In this way, customer can attain the highest level of satisfaction regarding selection of the products. Further, studies have concluded that 40% of the UK customers have sought to collect the selected products on own instead of delivered by a courier company. This method of branding has helped the company to attend the highest level of satisfaction regarding verification and specification of the selected products (Econsultancy, 2017). The last manager has voted for online browsing of products in website by the customers as an important tool for influencing behaviour of the customers. Browsing online about several products has ensured selection as well as brand building for the customers in clothing segment (section 2.3). Previous studies on this have validated the reliability of this statement (Vazifehdoost, 2014; Luk et al. 2013). Further, researchers have investigated in this issue finding that customers think the way of browsing and collecting products are interesting for buying clothing. M&S has ensured individual web page to be fast while the customers browse the pages.

  1. What suitable initiatives would you suggest for your M&S to improve its brand designs?

M&S must ensure the speed of online branding of its clothing and fashion accessories – as two of the five managers think as the best way to designing the online brand of the company. Further, these two managers have supported the initiation of selection and order booking of products in online mode. Such type of branding has initiated to draw attention of young customers in the UK. The third manager has voted for brand designing to win over the competitors in the UK market in clothing and fashion segments. This manager has recommended maintaining products’ availability and quality to continue branding as psychological tool in business. According to this manager, psychological branding might ensure sustainability of the business as well as brand loyalty in future. However, the last two managers have recommended using online platform as promotional tool instead of campaigning path for the products. These managers are pessimistic about appropriate supply chain for online order booking as well as availability of supply in physical stores. The usage of stores and showrooms of M&S must obtain different treatment for getting customers. Further, store can ensure to influence customers’ behaviour to try on new designs whereas online market cannot promote a new design as customers might not will to try the new clothe in website.

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