The Motivation and Rewards System of Selected Multinational Organizations in UAE
Introduction: The chapter introduces the topic and also discusses the aims, objectives and research questions. Therefore, chapter aims to identify the employee motivation and the reward systems followed by the MNCs in the UAE to maintain its performances. The research significance and problem statement are also discussed that facilitated the chapter in identifying its research rations. Literature review: The present chapter determines on the past proven facts that are already explored by the previous scholars. Therefore, the information evaluated by the professionals related to the present research subject has been scrutinized. Moreover, the critical argumentative approach is considered in the chapter to evaluate the feasibility of the secondary information. Research methodology: The present chapter focuses on the research parameters, which were chosen by the researcher for the data collection purpose. The chapter further discusses the selected data types, based on which the data collection process has been initiated. Later on, the sample size considered for the quantitative data analysis process is discussed and the tools that are selected to derive the final findings are also mentioned. Findings and discussions: The findings would be evaluated in the form of quantitative and qualitative format. Conclusions and recommendations: The conclusion is derived in this chapter, based on which suitable recommendations are suggested to mitigate the identified gaps.
UAE (United Arab Emirates) has been recognized as a fast-developing economy in the Gulf region. Other than being an oil and gas rich region, it is also popular for its open and forward-thinking pattern, where continuous efforts are made to experiment with innovative management practices. In the similar context, Akhter et al. (2016) mentioned that the nation has undertaken several efforts to increase economic diversification. According to Bourgeois et al. (2016), with the influx of MNCs (Multinational companies) UAE has managed to attain a notable mix of both foreign and domestic operations. Considering the view of Alvesson & Spicer (2012), it can be identified that employees are the primary assets of the MNCs who have an equal contribution towards the regional development. Therefore, the study aims to identify the employee motivation and the reward systems followed by the MNCs in the UAE to maintain its performances.
1.1 Background of the research
The emerging rate of competition in the relatively small UAE market has made both foreign and domestic brands intensely productivity conscious. In the circumstance of the current subject, Grint (2010) determined that the increasing rate of competition has generated a strong interest amongst the brands to actively seek for diversified management practices in every possible domain, including HRM (Human Resource Management). The MNCs are effectively focusing on efficiency and performance improvement process. Therefore, Korhonen-Sande & Sande (2016) asserted that the MNCs operating in the UAE market are undertaking reliable HRM efforts to enhance employee motivation performances, initiatives, and enthusiasm. Especially, the retail industry in the particular market has been able to maintain a profit consistency. Therefore, the study would further discuss the background of the 6 MNCs in UAE that has managed to retain its consistency in the highly competitive market.
Tesco is a British multinational grocery brand established in 1919 with its headquartering in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire (Tesco – Online Groceries, Homeware, Electricals & Clothing. 2017). The brand has a total strength of 476,000 across the world (Tesco – Online Groceries, Homeware, Electricals & Clothing. 2017). On the other hand, ASDA is another supermarket retailer headquartered in Leeds, West Yorkshire (Asda.com – Online Food Shopping, George, & more. 2017). The brand was established in 1949 and presently it operates with total 180,000 employees in the global market (Asda.com – Online Food Shopping, George, & more. 2017). Conversely, H&M is a Swedish multinational fashion retail brand, established in 1947 with its headquarter in Stockholm, Sweden (H&M offers fashion and quality at the best price. 2017). Zara is a Spanish fashion and accessory retailer headquartered in Arteixo, Spain. The brand was originated in 1974 (ZARA Official Website. 2017). Aldi was formed in 1913 and in 1946, the brand was split into two discounted supermarket chains, Aldi Nord and Aldi Sud (Welcome to ALDI. 2017). Lidl Stiftung & Co. KG is a German discount supermarket chain formed in 1930 and headquartered in Neckarsulm, Germany (Lidl US: Rethink Grocery. 2017).
The above-chosen brands have managed to form a successful identity in the UAE market. Therefore, the study attempts to recognize the motivation and reward practices the chosen MNCs follow to retain its employees’ performances in the present scenario.
1.2 Research rationale
Information discussed in the previous sections highlight the positive HRM efforts taken by the MNCs in the UAE market to retain its employee motivation. However, the current section deals with the short comings the brands are dealing related to employee motivation and reward system. It has been identified that the employees working in MNCs, UAE are dealing with chronic fatigue and stress issues. As per Ma et al. (2016), anxiety and stress are taking a serious toll on the workforce working for MNCs, UAE. A survey conducted by YouGov Siraj reflects that around 59% of employees working in MNCs in the UAE are excessively stressed out, 65% of staff are dealing with anxiety disorder problem due to excessive workloads and unstable workplace situation (MuAsger, 2011). Moreover, employees working in the MNCs have claimed of getting hardly 7 hours off in a week, which is the ultimate cause of high fatigue (MuAsger, 2011). Therefore, it can be identified that the very condition highlights that UAE’s explosive commercial success is in turn cause for serious health concern of its workforce. Therefore, the section highlights the fact that the MNC workforce UAE, are lagging in motivation and dealing with several psychological issues due to excessive work pressure.
1.4 Problem statement
The employees working in MNCs in UAE are being exploited with excessive work responsibilities. Therefore, the workforce has been dealing with stress and anxiety issues. Moreover, the MNCs are also lagging in the rewards and recognition efforts, which is again a cause for lack of motivation for the staff.
1.5 Research aims
The aim of the research is to evaluate the motivation and reward practices followed by the MNCs operating in the UAE region.
1.6 Research objectives
The research objectives are discussed below:
- To assess the motivation policies adopted by the MNCs operating in UAE to improve its employees’ performances.
- To identify the reward strategies undertaken by the MNCs operating in the UAE market.
- To analyze the impact of both motivation and reward strategies of MNCs, UAE on its employee performances.
- To recommend strategic initiatives that can help the MNCs to implement better motivation and reward system to ensure employee productivity in the UAE market.
1.7 Research questions
The research questions are as follow:
- What are the employees’ motivation policies followed in the MNCs operating in the UAE market?
- What are the reward practices followed by the MNCs, UAE?
- How far the current motivation and reward practices of MNCs, UAW impact on its employee performances?
- What would be the suitable recommendations to help MNCs, UAE with improved employee motivation and reward practices?
1.8 Dissertation structure
The dissertation structure is as detailed underneath:
Chapter 1: Introduction
The chapter would introduce the topic and the subject area. Based on which the aim, objectives and research questions would be set. The chapter would also find a problem area, depending on which the research rationale would be discussed. Finally, the significance of the research would be discussed followed by the research background.
Chapter 2: Literature review
The literature review would discuss the past proven facts and collect secondary data from reliable sources to justify the framed objectives. The critical argumentative approach would be considered in this chapter to compare and contrast the opinion of different scholars. Lastly, a conceptual framework would be developed to identify both dependent and independent variables.
Chapter 3: Research methodology
The chapter would discuss the research paradigms that would be selected for the data collection process. The chapter would select primary data collection process to analyze data in both quantitative and qualitative format. Finally, a time frame would be developed using Gantt chart to discuss the time segregation practices followed by the researcher to conduct the project.
Chapter 4: Findings and analysis
The primary data would be evaluated in the current chapter using quantitative and qualitative format. The quantitative data would be illustrated in the figurative format with the help of graphs and tables. Moreover, the qualitative data would be analyzed in the descriptive format.
Chapter 5: Conclusions and recommendations
The findings would be linked with the objectives, based on which the final conclusion would be derived in the present chapter. The researcher would also recommend suitable alternatives to address the gaps identified in the secondary data evaluation process.
The present chapter would determine on the past proven facts that are already explored by the previous scholars. Therefore, the information evaluated by the professionals related to the present research subject would be scrutinized. Moreover, the critical argumentative approach would be considered in the chapter to evaluate the feasibility of the secondary information. The details discussed by the previous authors would be critically analysed and to understand both positive as well as negative sides of the opinions. Efforts would be made to compare and contrasts the ideas of the past literature to identify the gaps in the present literature. Moreover, the literature would be further analysed with the support of suitable theoretical platforms. Effective motivational frameworks would be discussed to identify the rewards and employees inspirational policies undertaken by MNCs, UAE to increase its employees’ performances. Both the positive, as well as limitations of the motivational frameworks, would be discussed to determine its suitability for the current study. Each of the secondary information would be backed up with relevant sources for enhancing data authenticity. Finally, based on the argumentative approach, a conceptual framework would be created to identify the dependent and independent variables.
2.1 Concept of motivation and rewards
Employee motivation is a composite and well-researched field having broader roots in various collections related to academic disciplines such as sociology, psychology, education, economic, science and political science. In the context of the similar statement, Hammersley (2013) asserted that the underlying concept of motivation can be recognized as a driving force through which employees attempts to serve organizations with positive attitudes. As per Iyem & Savasir (2017), motivation is difficult to define, it is not directly observable, controllable and consciously understood.
In line with the previous statement, Kelloway et al. (2012) asserted that motivation cannot be observed directly. It is an internal state that influences employees to behave in a particular manner to accomplish professional goals and purposes. For example, Shepherd & Sutcliffe (2011) stated that the acquisition of money might be an extrinsic motivator, however, it is an only manifestation of internal drive of employees to meet individual intrinsic needs such as maintaining social status, paying house rent or purchasing food.
On the other hand, Trmal et al. (2017) denoted that motivation is not the same as satisfaction. Satisfaction is past oriented and motivation is future oriented. For example, an employee can be satisfied with its current compensation package; however, it is not necessary for the same employees to have motivation for current job responsibilities.
Conversely, Hammersley (2013) claimed that motivation is not always felt conscious. As the human behaviour theory of Sigmund Freud, human behaviour is an instinct of unconscious repressed memories, influential desires drives and impulses. In a similar manner, Trmal et al. (2017) determined that motivation in uncontrollable in nature. Motivation occurs unconsciously and managers are unable to guarantee success with the methods taken for employee motivations. In simple, managers can influence employee motivational process but are not cable of controlling it.
According to Rahil (2017), content theories are established based on the assumptions that all individuals share similar types of human needs and several efforts are taken to satisfy the developed needs. On the other hand, process theories revolve around the rational cognitive process. The frameworks denote that individuals might have similar needs, yet, the intensities and urges for the needs differ from person to person.
In the opinion of Milne (2007), behavioural and human relations management had emerged during the 1920s dealing with the human aspects in organizations. It has been referred to as the Neo Classical school since it had been a reaction to the drawbacks of classical approaches to managements. Human relations movement started with Hawthorne Studies, which was further carry forwarded by Elton Mayo between the years 1924 – 1933. The above studies indicated the fact that workforce responds the way managers tend to engage.
In the similar time, Max Weber established Bureaucratic Management theory in 1922 and discussed the process in which organizational hierarchies shall work. Bureaucracies established on the grounds of legal and rational authorities and clearly defined roles and responsibilities. On the other side, Chester Barnard had developed authoritarian acceptance theory, which depends on four conditions:
- Employees should understand managers’ demands
- Employees must be able to comply as per individual directives
- Employees shall think of directives keeping in mind its organizational motives.
- Employees shall believe that directives are not contrary to personal goals.
Contradicting the ideas of the previous framework, Chester Barnard in its management theory denoted that each employee has its zone of indifference or ranges to accept authoritarian orders without raising any questions (Barnard, 1938). Bernard claimed it completely depends on the organization to what extent it can broaden employees’ zone of indifference to obey managerial orders (Barnard, 1938).
In the very beginning of the 1950s, human resource school was developed representing a substantial progression of human relations. The specific behavioural approach did not show its productivity always. Therefore, according to Kelloway et al. (2012), leadership and motivation techniques became the core areas of organizational interest. Abraham Maslow can be identified as one of the first researchers `to develop effective motivational theory, Hierarchy Needs Model.
The purpose of the current chapter is to make the detailed analysis of literature related to employee motivation in both thematic and theoretical aspects. The detailed analysis would further help to gain understandings of the facets of motivation frameworks in modern literature.
2.2 Evolution of modern motivation theory
In 1943, Abraham Maslow has developed “A Theory of Human Motivation” and introduced five levels of hierarchy needs as physiological, security, social, esteem and self-actualization. According to Stoyanov (2017), physiological needs are described as the basic needs like food, water, sleep, etc. On the other hand, security needs refer to the needs like steady employment, shelter, safety, etc. social needs include love, affections, friendships, belongingness, etc. Moreover, self-esteem needs to be centred on the factors like social recognition, individual worth and accomplishment. In the circumstance of the similar context, Healy (2016) mentioned that self-actualization is the highest need where individuals are less concerned with the other options and remain more focused attaining full potential.
Figure: Maslow’s Hierarchies of Needs
(Source: Healy, 2016)
As per Elliot et al. (2017), it is not necessary for individuals to generate needs in the chronological manner discussed in the above framework. People can be positioned in different stages of the hierarchy at different points of life. According to Schaller et al. (2017), the majority of the employees feel threatened by the competitive environment of organizations, therefore, maximum percentages of employees seek for safety needs in the organisation. In the similar context, Healy (2016) determined that almost every employees desire for the self-actualization needs but only few can manage to attain it.
Against the previous statement, Stoyanov (2017) stated that each of the needs or levels are fulfilled in a completed sequence and serves motivation until all the needs meet the level self-actualization. Maslow further emphasized on the fact that individuals generally seek of each need and get motivated after accomplishing it. Moreover, Maslow further stated that order of hierarchy is not rigid. Since every individual has a different need, therefore, some might get motivated after reaching the ‘self-actualization’ level and some might restrict its motivation up to the ‘belonging needs’ level. As per Aryeeet al. (2016), Maslow has been able to point out the limitations of its own theory and suggested that the hierarchies are more theoretical than normative. In the words of Maslow, to Kelloway et al. (2012) stated that the ‘Hierarchies of Need’ theory has detailed on suggested ideas which might stand or fall in the near future. The determinants discussed for each stage are quite basic, which might fail to retain its relevance with the passage of time. The criteria for employee motivation might change in future, thus, the theory might fail to address the future criteria for employee motivation. Therefore, according to Howard et al. (2016), Maslow was well aware of the fact that its theory might be questioned by future researchers.
In the background of the similar statement, Elliot et al. (2017) stated that Elton Mayo had further taken the effort to study employees behaviours at the organization. Mayo has examined workers’ behaviours at the Western Electric Company’s Hawthorn plant near Chicago. In the investigation process, Mayo and its team members had studies the productivity of workers under several changing working conditions like humidity, temperatures, illumination, etc. It has been identified that the team explored that external workplace condition is directly related to employee productivity. The principle is referred to as scientific management, which is introduced by Fredrick Taylor in 1911 and it still creates a powerful reference for modern managers. On the other hand, Pourbarkhordari et al. (2016) stated that Mayo and its team still contradicts the claims of scientific management theory. Mayo states that internal communication and greater interaction scopes with managers enacts as a driving force for employee motivation. Hawthorn theory states that interactional variables create a considerable difference in motivating people. The approaches like attention paid over workers’ performances, creating group norms, recognizing workers’ issues and asking for work related feedbacks. The above process can increase the level of motivation amongst workers, which creates a direct impact on organizational productivity.
However, Schaller et al. (2017), stated that the theories of modern management are accurately rooted in the concept of scientific management of Taylor, in which the working methods of the workforces were examined using time and motion studies and payments were given based on the piece rates (work accomplished). The approach is further aligned to “Theory X” framework of McGregor established in 1960. In the above theory, managers believe the fact that employees are inherently lazy and unsatisfied with individual jobs. Therefore, an autocratic authoritarian management would be required to ensure a fulfilment of organizational objectives. Considering the statement of Howard et al. (2016), it can be understood that ‘Theory X’ describes the workers those are lazy and disinterested to introduce creative ideas in the organization. The similar group of employees prefers to work under the instruction of autocratic leaders, where each and every role would be instructed and the workforce would be guided and controlled. Stoyanov (2017) asserted that managers leading a team of lazy employees assume that the primary responsibility is to structure the works of its subordinates and provide acute guidance persistently. However, these assumptions can often lead to creating mistrusts and ultimately a diseconomy of scale.
Emphasizing on the enthusiastic professional behaviours of some employees McGregor has developed another framework named, “Theory Y”, which states that there are high probabilities of employees being self-motivated and ambition at workplaces (Kanfer et al. 2017). The theory further claims that employees are often ready to take additional professional responsibilities and align individual professional goals with the organizational objectives. Therefore, the specific set of employees can be recognized as the loyal bases that are willing to serve organizations with a long term intention.
According to Howard et al. (2016), employees under ‘Theory Y’ desire for extra responsibilities and are also receptive to any organizational change. Managers leading the specific set of motivated employees believe that good work is the self-driven factor that tends to increase level o9f motivation amongst the workforce. Therefore, the positive working behaviours of employees often encourage managers more likely to establish the positive interpersonal relationship. The specific approach leads to strengthening the employee manager relationship, which uplifts the scope of mutual understandings. Therefore, subordinates, as well as the managers, create a trust over each other, which serves immense benefits towards organizations to increase its productivity.
Therefore, the current theory is designed considering on both the negative and positive attitudes of workforces, therefore, it can help modern managers to undertake the remedial measures that can increase the laid back employees’ behaviours (Kanfer et al. 2017).
The characteristics of “Theory Y” is initially observed and introduced by Henry Gantt. According to Schaller et al. (2017), Gantt’s approaches to motivate workforces include training and paying bonus for attaining production based targets. In general, workers were provided with basic wage until the efficiencies were not developed. Once the workers and foreman were entirely trained to achieve production based targets, the workforce meets the eligibility criteria to receive a bonus (Schaller et al. 2017). Moreover, Gantt was entirely aware of the culture and types of people needed in its organization but did not develop any such “motivational theory”. In the opinion of Pourbarkhordari et al. (2016), it can be identified that the limitation of this motivation process is its ‘extrinsic’ nature. This type of motivation works where work process can be counted.
2.3 Kinds of motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic
By investigating multiple motivational theories, Elliot et al. (2017) asserted that there are two basic types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. It has been identified that intrinsically motivational behaviours can be observed when there is no other evident reward policies for employees are set except the task based activities. In the similar instance, Elliot et al. (2017) mentioned that intrinsic behaviour is the basic factors every individual come across daily. For example, hunger, altruism, responsibility and desires to feel appreciated. On the other hand, Pourbarkhordari et al. (2016) determined that extrinsically motivated behaviours can be identified within individuals, where the controlling mechanisms can be easily observed. For example, extrinsic behaviour includes factors like physical environment, rules, regulations, laws, etc.
In line with the above statements, Lakshman (2008) asserted that intrinsically motivated behaviours can be recognized as innate that can result in flexibility, creativity and spontaneity. On the other side, extrinsically motivated behaviours occur under consequences of any pressures and results in anxiety and low self-esteem. Extrinsic motivation arises from the external environment, for employees the most obvious form of extrinsic motivation is money. According to Okoro (2012), every paid job in the globe includes extrinsic motivation whether in the form of commission, compensation, tips, salary, wages, financial benefits, etc. On the contrary, Pourbarkhordari et al. (2016) denoted that intrinsically motivated behaviours come from within, where employees are found generating personal interest and stated that intrinsic motivational behaviours cover the areas where employees opt for career options aligned to personal interests. For example, various instances are a witness where people having an interest in dancing have opted for dancing as a career choice. In this case, the personal and the professional interest of the person are highly aligned. There is a high probability for the employee taking self-initiatives to develop its singing skilling due to a personal interest in the specific field. Thus, motivation, in this case, would come from within, where the employees would like to polish its skills willingly to enjoy its professional schedules.Therefore, intrinsic motivation often results for growth.
In the opinion of Elliot et al. (2017), it can be understood that it is essentially important for organizations to understand the personal interest of candidates before recruiting. Since the growth probability is considerably higher in cases where employees’ professional roles and responsibilities are linked to its personal interests. However, Lakshman (2008) stated that in the majority of cases, employees consider personal interests as hobbies and opt for different career choices, which becomes a burden after certain years of experiences. Since employees fail to retain interests on its professional responsibilities, therefore, the urge of self-initiatives and skill enhancement reduces with times.
In the context of the similar statement, Elliot et al. (2017) claimed that maximum percentages of brands use entrancing motivation technique to encourage employees’ behaviours such as punishment and competitiveness. It has been observed that extrinsic motivation often creates threats of punishment. For example, the fear of getting fired or leave cuts are driving factors forcing employees to maintain regularity at workplaces. Therefore, the fear of getting fire is an extrinsic motivation.
As per Pourbarkhordari et al. (2016), both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation play a major role in establishing cultural engagement. It is an obvious fact that extrinsic motivation is a chief factor in the organization, where every employee demands a fair payment by the end of the month. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation plays a significant role when it comes to employee engagement process. In the similar instance, Howard et al. (2016) mentioned that employees are the foremost asset of every organization, therefore, it is effectively important for management to keep almost every employee motivation to gain optimum productivity in future. Therefore, management of every organization needs to ensure that employees are finding personal interests in its profession.
According to Howard et al. (2016), it is nearly impossible to motivate every employee to find interest in its professional works, but management can undertake few efforts like departmental meetings, collecting employee feedbacks, etc to communicate its organizational motives to its employees. In line with the previous statement, Pourbarkhordari et al. (2016) determined that in the recent times, employees demand transparent communications and supports participative leadership process. Therefore, it is important for the leaders to involve its employees in the decision making process. Since management would clearly discuss its organizational motives, thus, employees would be able to understand the future objectives of the brands and might find the process interesting.
Considering the statement of Okoro (2012), it can be identified that majority of times, employees lose out interest from organizational tasks for being unaware of its future objectives. This increases the understanding and communication gap between management and employees, which results in greater employee turnover rates. Therefore, involvements of employees in the decision making process are effectively important to increase employees’ self-interest towards the organizational operations. This can simultaneously help management to increase employee retention and productivity at the same time. Therefore, the presence of both motivational types is important for every organization to maintain a balance.
2.4 Content theories of motivation
Herzberg was influenced by both Maslow and McGregor’s theories and introduced its own motivation theory named ‘motivation hygiene’ theory in the year 1968. In the same theory, Herzberg has managed to describe two workplace dimensions conditions, hygiene and motivation factors. The motivation determinants are driven from Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. According to Schaller et al. (2017), Herzberg claimed that job satisfactions are effectively associated with the nature of works. The factors like recognition, achievement, growth and responsibility also enhance job satisfaction amongst employees. It has been identified that motivators are the intrinsic factors which result in job satisfaction. On the other hand, hygiene factors are associated with Maslow’s lower level of needs, which do not necessarily, leads to creating motivation or satisfaction. However, Howard et al. (2016) stated that extrinsic motivation often leads to creating demotivation at the workplace. For example, hygiene factors involve factors like company policy, supervision, relationships, administration, supervision and work conditions.
For instance, Schaller et al. (2017) determined that an employee can receive high salary and good working condition at the workplace, however, both the factors are not adequate to increase its motivation level. In the similar context, Okoro (2012) suggested that employees require rewards, appreciation and challenges at the same time to remain motivated at the workplace. In case the roles and responsibilities are not rewarding, employees would not feel challenged in its tasks, therefore, the scope for appreciation is considerably minimum in this case. As it is already discussed in the earlier sections that employee requires both financial and on financial rewards in the organization to retain individual motivation. Therefore, both challenging environment, as well as a good compensation package, would be required to developed employee motivation.
On the other hand, Clayton Alderfer, who was majorly influenced by Gordon Allport has taken the effort to simplify Maslow’s hierarchy needs into three different categories in the year 1972. Existence, which includes psychological and safety needs, relatedness, which involves love and esteem needs and growth, which signifies self-actualization stage.
O n the contrary, Schaller et al. (2017) explained that Alderfer has considered its three categories more as a continuum rather than a strict hierarchy. Thus, as per Kelloway et al. (2012), the ERG theory allows different people to pursue individual needs in a subjective manner. According to Howard et al. (2016), Alderfer’s ERG theory further states the fact that in case higher level needs go unsatisfied in workers due to facing complexities in attaining it, in that case, employees might regress into lower-level of needs, which is easier to satisfy. The previous concept is also known as frustration regression principle and can be observed in organizations where workers meet frustration in growth opportunities (Schaller et al. 2017). After which, the employees might regress towards meeting needs of lower stages like socialization with peers and managers.
Contrary to the theorists who assume that individuals have alike innate needs, David McClelland argued that definite needs differ from individual to individual and that are often learned needs. Some people might have higher levels of one need over others (Akhter et al. 2016). In the similar context, McClelland proposed that individuals are primarily motivated on the basis of three definite needs: achievement, power and affiliation. Every individual has a certain level of need and in combination, employees tend to describe the criteria that can increase the individual motivational level.
An employee with high achievement needs would always seek for excellence in individual work and appreciates recognition received from the individual effort (Akhter et al. 2016).) The specific set of employees avoid situation having less gain, while the employees also overlook the high-risk situations where the probability of failure is high. It has been identified that high affiliation needs based workers are relatively concerned about its social status. On the other hand, individuals having high power need the desire to control others for attaining future goals (Kelloway et al. 2012). The specific set of employees is less concerned regarding approval and recognition of others.
Against the latter statement, Tallman & Koza (2016) asserted that it is effectively necessary for employees to develop a sense of competence amongst self and also inculcating the attitude of motivating other employees once the targeted competencies are attained. Kelloway et al. (2012) mentioned that a proper fit between organizational structure and assigned tasks often leads to creating competency and motivation at the workplace.
Furthermore, asserting on the determinants of the previous theories, Skinner has developed a ‘reinforcement theory’ stating that employee behaviours are shaped by previous positive and negative outcomes that are already experienced by people. Therefore, it is the primary responsibility of management to explicitly emphasize on the positive outcomes (rewards) to encourage desired behaviours (Barnard, 1938).
2.5 Process theories of motivation
In the opinion of Bonache & Zárraga-Oberty (2017), it can be identified that content theories emphasized on the needs that every individual share, on the other hand, process theories primarily focus on the cognitive differences between people. In the background of the similar statement, Trmal et al. (2017) stated that the theory of cognitive dissonance by Festinger in 1957 determines that an individual feels discomfort holding two contradictory concepts, ideas, beliefs at the same time. The feeling of contradiction often motivates individuals to reduce the level of dissonance and attain consonance. Moreover, Rahil (2017) determined that the similar feeling can also encourage employees to actively avoid situations which tend to enhance dissonance. In line with the similar statement, Trmal et al. (2017) stated that the framework of cognitive dissonance can be utilized as an effective power of motivational force that can tackle any contradictory situation in politics and in any public forum.
In sequence to Festinger, Victor Vroom had introduced expectancy theory in 1964 claiming that every individual has the tendency of predicting future (Barnard, 1938). Therefore, every individual initiative to assume probable future paths related to both personal and professional life and takes relative attempts to meet the events. However, Trmal et al. (2017) mentioned that before accounting for steps, people calculate the value of rewards and possibilities of attaining it. As per Rahil (2017), people initiate major future calculations for its professional life, as every organization has its own hierarchy, therefore, it becomes easier for people to assume its future career paths.
Vroom’s framework of cognitive decision making and actions highlights three components of motivation including valence, instrumentality, and expectancy. In the statement of Trmal et al. (2017) it can be observed that Valence can be simply considered as the force of desire for the perceived outcome and the urges for reward. On the other side, instrumentality is the conviction through which people get the will to complete certain steps, to attaining its desired outcomes (Barnard, 1938). Lastly, the expectancy can be identified as the belief in which one determines of getting, in any condition. Considering all three above measures into account, the level of motivation in a person might be witnessed.
In the similar circumstance, Trmal et al. (2017) briefed that expectancy theory states that people or employees get motivated by calculated its future demands with respects to both personal and professional lives. Based on the assumptions, people undertake relative efforts to meet its desired outcomes.
On the contrary, in 1963, Social equity theory had been introduced by John S. Adams, which is an addition to Festinger’s cognitive dissonance framework and further appears to depend on the conception of ‘looking-glass self’ theory of Cooley in 1983. Equity theory is primarily based on the idea that employees remain most satisfied in social gatherings or relationships, both personal and professional aspect (Barnard, 1938). In terms of professional life, employees evaluate equity by measuring individual input to outcome ratio against the other workers. According to Trmal et al. (2017), Adams suggested that people or employees gain a sense of equity via the process of socialization. Hence, under equity framework, depicted inequity widens the scope for tension, which is in proportion to inequity (Barnard, 1938). Thus, tension acts as a driving force to motivate individuals for a change action.
Adams in its social equity theory had outlined six components to reduce the inequity based tensions:
- Altering efforts
- Altering outcomes
- Changing people’s thinking pattern related to efforts or outcomes
- “leave the field”
- Try and change outcomes for others
- Changing comparison standards
However. Trmal et al. (2017) stated that like Maslow, Adams had been able to identify the shortcomings of its own frameworks. It has been recognized that Adams claimed that it is not necessary for all 6 means described in the framework to be equally satisfactory. Some might result in unsteady stated with the passage of times.
Converse to the concepts of Adam’s, Social equity theory, Edwin Lock had developed goal setting theory in 1968, it is important for organizations to set definite goals for its employees, which would entrust a challenge before every individual to achieve the goal based targets (Barnard, 1938). It has been recognized that goal setting approach also allows the workforce to judge individual performances and also to understand the areas that require extra effort. In the similar instance, Trmal et al. (2017) asserted that goal setting concept can also be effective when it comes to team work. The specific and measurable goals generally helped employees to understand each others’ perspectives and can help other members to develop further skills to attain the set goals. Thus, it tends to strengthen cohesion, team efforts, enhance performance and reaffirm purposes. Hence, it can be identified from the former statement that goal setting often leads to creates several positive behavioural changes in the team, which can unitarily increase team motivation.
In the year 1975, Taibi Kahler had recognized five widespread motivational drivers which had the capability to create dysfunctional behaviours. The motivational drivers are :
- Being perfect
- Being strong
- Hurry up
- Pleasing others
- Trying hard.
Kahler suggested that every individual is guided to be communally functional adults via the above-discussed drivers. However, when employees in any organizations focus on all of these aspects at a single time, it can cause high stress.
Kahler’s drivers, in the context of work, seem to be situational dependent. Managers may be able to capitalize on the intrinsic drivers of their workers to suit the organization’s needs but they could also be used in assisting stressed workers to identify the sources of their stress. Hence, Kahler, T. (1975) determined that it is significant for employees to focus on a single area at a time.
2.6 Motivation policies adopted by MNCs in UAE
In the context of the similar statement, Bonache & Zárraga-Oberty (2017) stated that the MNCs operating in UAE are taking several efforts to enhance employee expertise and knowledge with effective training sessions. In the similar context, Dasí et al. (2017) determined that several types of research are made in the past show that training programs, if implemented effectively, can leave a positive impact on employees’ efficiency level, thereby, improve the overall productivity of organizations. It has been identified that Tesco has overhauled its pay policies for its top executives in 2011 to avoid the probability of stakeholders’ revolts (Goodley, 2011). Moreover, Tesco offers free shares to its employees after one year of service (Motivational theory in practice at Tesco. 2013). “Save As You Earn” shares are offered to employees having one year of experience in a high-interest account. Moreover, the brand offers its employees to participate in its staff satisfaction survey ‘Viewpoint’ and provide individual opportunities to every employee to express individual views on every job aspect (Dasí et al. 2017).
On the other hand, ASDA emphasizes on its employees’ well-being and development process. In the opinion of Bonache & Zárraga-Oberty (2017), the firm encourages its employees in the UAE market to enhance its skills and knowledge to become the next departmental leaders. Moreover, the management has taken firm efforts to shape a strong culture within its organization. Dasí et al. (2017) identified that like Tesco, ASDA also follows an employee survey process named “Your View” in UAE to assess its employees’ opinions with respect to organizational culture, operations and compensation structure. Moreover, the brand also conducted a focused group method to assess employees’ issues in detail and to identify effective policies to enhance employee motivation.
In the similar background, McDonnell et al. (2016) stated that Zara conducts an effective training session for its employees and help each employee to increase skills and expertise as per organizational functions. Bonache & Zárraga-Oberty (2017) stated that Zara, UAE also believes in employee participation in the decision making process, therefore, the management encourages its employees to think of creative ideas and implement it in individual tasks. As per the employees’ reviews, Zara’s compensation structure is strong and effective, thus, employees remain highly motivated for getting salary or wage on time (ALDI Employee Benefits and Perks. 2017).
In the opinion of Dasí et al. (2017), it can be identified that the management of H&M has managed to maintain a pleasant and sustainable working environment throughout its UAE operations. The brand takes preventive measure in the UAE market to ensure long term safety and health benefits amongst employees. Moreover, the brand has introduced a policy where employees having five total work experiences at H&M would be eligible to share the profit increase of H&M Group.
Just like Zara, Aldi also maintains a strong compensation structure in the UAE market. In the statement of Korzynski (2013), it can be identified that Aldi is primarily famous for its discounted offerings, therefore, the demand rate for its products are comparatively higher than other brands. Therefore, to mitigate the high demand rate, the management insists for greater work timings (McDonnell et al. 2016). However, despite the busy schedule, the brand has managed to retain its employee motivation with its strong and fair pay package.
In the statement of Williams & Lee (2016), it can be observed that Lidl’s employee culture can be a threat for other MNC’s operating in the supermarket segment in the UAE market. According to McDonnell et al. (2016), the management of Lidle focuses to build a cohesive team, it further recognizes employees’ efforts and offer rewards for talents and motivate to grow with the organization.
2.7 Rewards offered to the employees by MNCs in UAE
It has been identified that Tesco has promised its employees in the UAE market to provide a “turnaround bonus”, which worth up to 5% more of its salary if the sales are hit (Goodley, 2011). Employees operating IN UAE market are further rewarded with Christmas benefits, where the staff is offered with additional ad-hoc discounts on few products. Through the year, employees are also rewarded with discount received via vouchers contained in pay slips on goods. According to Bhatnagar (2007), Tesco’s benefits package also attempts to encourage its staff to take a stake in business via its “three all-employee share scheme”.
On the other hand, it has been identified that the management of H&M, UAE has offered its employees with a HIP payouts plan after turning 62 (The H&M Way. 2013). The brand further planned that that from 2021, staff would be eligible to receive its first payouts after having ten years of experience with H&M (The H&M Way. 2013). However, ASDA had run its employee recognition scheme in UAE, where the staff was provided with great rewards based on its customer services. It has been recognized that the brand has provided rewarded 68,856 employees for making exceptional efforts in its customer service domain (ASDA: Aiming to Serve Better. 2015). In 2014, ASDA has are a share of £27.8 million annual bonus payouts to its employees in the UAE market (ASDA: Aiming to Serve Better. 2015).
Contrary to the latter statement, McDonnell et al. (2016) stated that the employees also demand discounted benefits from the retail stores like Zara. In Zara, UAE, employees receive a rewards discount of 25% off on any sales price of products (Zara Employee Benefits and Perks. 2017). The brand has further introduced health insurance and commission plans for its employees (Zara Employee Benefits and Perks. 2017). The commission is based on daily goals if the store meets its daily day’s target; the staff is allowed to get a percentage of total day’s earnings (Zara Employee Benefits and Perks. 2017). Moreover, employees are offered with 4 weeks of paid vacation.
Aldi’s records in terms of employee rewards are quite poor as compared to its competitors in the UAE market. Information collected from “glass door” article reveals that employees complained that the brand deducts half salaries of employees to provide health insurances (Zara Employee Benefits and Perks. 2017). On the other hand, few of the employees stated that the brand claimed of providing vacation and paid time off to its employees (Zara Employee Benefits and Perks. 2017). However, to earn the leave related facilities employees needs to get sick with over time stress (Zara Employee Benefits and Perks. 2017). Thus, employees working at Aldi, UAE are neither satisfied nor motivated with its reward system.
Lidl provides its employees with the 10% discounts on all its products in the UAE stores (Zara Employee Benefits and Perks. 2017). Moreover, each of the employees is offered with pension benefits after the completion of its probation period. Furthermore, employees are also rewarded with private health insurance and 21-25 days of holidays depending upon the length of service (Zara – Motivation, Inspiration and Ambition. 2017). According to McDonnell et al. (2016), employees of Lidl are quite satisfied with its health care and pension reward schemes.
2.8 Impact of current motivation and rewards strategies of the MNCs operation in UAE
In the circumstance of the present statement, Williams & Lee (2016) stated that the motivation and reward strategies adopted by the MNCs in the UAE market had been effective to enhance employees performance and behaviour towards the organization. Contradicting the latter statement, McDonnell et al. (2016) asserted that in some of the organizations, employees used to reduce the basis wage of the employees to provide the reward facilities to its employee. However, the process was hardly appreciated by any employees. Therefore, the brands, for example, Aldi, which has followed the same policies, could hardly manage to retain its employee motivation. On the contrary, it has also been inferred from the previous statement that despite long working hours and extreme pressure, Aldi has been able to retain its employee motivation by providing fair and on time payments.
On the other hand, Williams & Lee (2016) stated that both Tesco and ASDA have been able to increase its employee efficiency and motivation within organizations. Both the brands have offered employee survey schemes to understand its employees’ perspective with respect to its each operation and functions. The specific scheme has helped both the brands to address the issues employees are experiencing within the organisation; therefore, the brands have taken resolving measures to solve employees’ issues and also to enhance employees’ level of motivation (Bonache & Zárraga-Oberty, 2017). The focused group session of ASDA had been effective to identify its employees’ queries in details, the group has been able to interact with the employees and identify every small issue. This approach has not only helped ASDA to increase its employee motivation and performance, but also to increase employee engagement with the organization.
In a similar manner, H&M’s HIP payouts plan has helped the management to gain employees’ trust. According to Bonache & Zárraga-Oberty (2017), the HIP payout plan had encouraged several employees to gain the trust of the brands also to increase contribution towards the brand to receive a better payout margin in the near future. Employees have shown great interest in serving the organization for longer duration and to get the specific benefit in future after retirement (Bonache & Zárraga-Oberty, 2017). On the other hand, Zara always maintained strict lines of professionalism, therefore, it invests considerable timed to recruit employees those are highly professional nature. Therefore, the employees operating in Zara, UAE are well aware of the organizational cultures and policies. Therefore, the strong compensation structure of the organization is adequate enough to retain its staff motivation.
Identifying individual schemes
It has been assessed from the previous discussions that ASDA follows the business model of Tesco and imitate majority of Tesco’s policies. Therefore, it is high time for ASDA to think of new techniques and implement individual schemes to increase its employees’ motivation. In the opinion of Williams & Lee (2016), every organization has its own business culture, based on which employee’s demands are expectations are formed. Therefore, it is necessary for the management to develop new employee benefit schemes on the basis of its own business culture other than imitating competitors’ techniques.
Emphasizing on employees issue
The above discussion shows that the employees of Aldi are experiencing a considerable issue with its overtime and stress full environment. It can be identified that Aldi has been able to retain its potential base only with on time and fair payment. However, Williams & Lee (2016) stated that innovation and business models of organizations are changing with time and similar with employees’ expectations. Therefore, there is a high probability for Aldi to experience a high employee turnover if relied only on fair pay scheme.
2.10 Conceptual framework
The factors like strong culture, fair pay and training are the independent factors that can influence employee motivation. On the other hand, pension, health insurance, incentives and discounts are also independent variables that are required to design employee rewards schemes. Both motivation and rewards schemes influence workforce motivation at work, which create a direct impact on performances as well. Therefore, motivation schemes, reward schemes, increase employee motivation and greater performances are the dependent variables.
Body of Thesis
The present chapter would determine the research parameters, which would be chosen by the researcher for the data collection purpose. The chapter would further discuss the selected data types, based on which the data collection process would be initiated. Moreover, the researcher would discuss the research investigation types, through which collected secondary and primary data would be evaluated. Later on, the sample size considered for the quantitative data analysis process would also be discussed and the tools that would be selected to derive the final findings would also be determined. Lastly, the chapter would discuss the time frame in detail with the help of Gantt chart framework.
3.1 Research proposition
Research philosophy underlines the research parameters that are chosen to collect the primary as well as the secondary data. In the present project, the researcher has chosen the research parameters like positivism philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive research design. The selection of the above-discussed parameters has supported the researcher to evaluate the current subjects in detail. To maintain a bias free data collection process, the researcher has followed a simple random sampling process. The researcher has followed both quantitative and qualitative approach for the data evaluation process. Therefore, to gather the quantitative findings, a survey approach has been followed where respondents were offered with a set of questionnaire and samples were requested to return the form within the specified time. The researcher has considered the entire employees base of the selected brands under the population. However, only 10 respondents from each brand managed to participate in the survey session. Therefore, the sample size for quantitative approach has been 60. On the other hand, a group of professionals were selected to receive answers in qualitative format. Lastly, to avoid legal issues, the researcher has followed the ethical standards while conducting the entire researcher process.
3.2 Research onion
In the context of the present statement, Saunders et al. (2007) asserted that research onion leads to provide an effective progression through which the entire structure of research methodology can be designed. In the similar context, Corbin & Strauss (2008) denoted that the usefulness of the framework lies in its adaptability for any category of research methodology and can be further used in a variety of contexts. It has been identified that the frameworks consist of different layers, which helps the researchers to understand the layers of research onion. The researchers basically follow the layers of the onion and penetrated from the outer layers to the inner layers and gaining deeper insight of research context. On the contrary, Gioia et al. (2013) stated that it is not necessary or the researcher to maintain a chronology while moving from one layer to another. For example, the moment a researcher designs its research to answer any question or address a problem in that case the study would begin with a data analysis process. It signifies that the researcher would start its process from the centre of the research onion. Therefore, the particular framework has further helped the researcher to understand the process of data collection and the approaches in a synchronized manner to conduct a research methodology. Therefore, the using this framework, the researcher has been able to identify the tools and parameters required for the study. Thus, the rewards and the motivation strategies followed by the MNCs in UAE has been recognized effectively.
3.3 Research philosophy
Research philosophy is of three types, such as positivism, realism and interpretivism. In the opinion of Sekaran & Bougie (2016), it can be understood that realism is the simplest and most general philosophy. It is viewed as entities of certain kinds that maintain an objectives based reality. This is entirely ontologically independent and deals with the aspects of conceptual schemes, beliefs and practices. On the contrary, Olubusayo et al. (2014) stated that realism philosophy entire deals with the objects that are already felt by human senses. Therefore, the probability of biases can be a major issue in this philosophy. On the other hand, the interpretive researcher believes that access to reality can be a possibility only through social construction such as consciousness, language, instruments and shared meanings. In the similar instance, Olafsen et al. (2015) stated that the establishment interpretive philosophy is conducted based on the critique of positivism philosophy in social science. It has been recognized that interpretive depend more on human beliefs, the point of view and feels that knowledge is comparative to the knower.
On the other hand, positivism refers to the view that only factual knowledge that gained through observation is reliable and trust worthy. In the statement of O’Gorman et al. (2014), in positivism study, the roles of the researcher are found limited in the data collection and interpretation process. With the support of the positivism philosophy, the research findings can be quantified and observable. It has been agreed that the doctrine of positivism is complex to be discussed in an accurate and succinct manner. Since vast differences have been observed between the settings through positivism philosophy is used by researchers. According to Turner et al. (2016), positivism is a scientific study that deals with the rationale of a project. Therefore, the chances of arriving at an authentic conclusion through positivism philosophy are considerably higher. Hence, positivism philosophy has been considered for the current project. Positivism is primarily used to understand employee motivation, employee behaviour and engagement process by using scientific techniques. Therefore, the chosen philosophy has helped the researcher to understand the motivation and reward system followed by the MNCs in the UAE market. The positivism philosophy has assisted the researcher to systematically gather information related to employee motivation and rewards followed by the MNCs in the UAE market and its final impact on the performances and outcome.
3.4 Research approach
The research approach is of two types including inductive and deductive. Considering the statement of Creswell (2014), it can be identified that inductive research approach can be also referred as inductive reasoning, which starts with observations and proposing theories at the end of the research process. Inductive research approach attempts to derive meaning from data set gathered to recognize patterns and relationship to develop a new theory. Summarizing the above statements, Aguinis et al. (2009) denoted that inductive is generally a theory developing an approach. It basically helps researchers that aim to establish a new hypothesis. The approach is majorly based on the ‘learning from experience’ concept. Experiences like patterns, regularities and resemblances are observed with the intention of reaching a fair conclusion.
On the other hand, a deductive approach is concerned with establishing hypothesis on the basis of existing theory and designing a research policy to examining the hypothesis. In the statement of Smith (2015), a deductive approach is detailed by the means of hypotheses, which can be understood based on the propositions of existing theories. In other words, a deductive approach is primarily conscious with deducting conclusions on the basis of premises or propositions. In the similar instance, Sultan & Yin Wong (2013) explained that the deduction starts with experienced research patterns that are examined against observations. However, induction starts with observations and seeks to develop new patterns. Hence, it can be identified from the latter discussions that the inductive research approach generally deals to develop a fresh theory and deductive approach is a theory testing approach, which examines the validity of the existing secondary concepts.
Due to the specific nature, the deductive approach is often categorized under the Waterfall framework. However, in the present study no fresh theories or hypothesis is required; thus, the deductive research approach has been chosen over inductive. With the support of deductive research approach, the researcher has been able to scrutinize the feasibility of the existing motivational theories which were discussed in the literature review section. Therefore, the deductive approach has supported the researcher to evaluate the secondary information based on theoretical aspects. Hence, the motivation and rewards system undertaken by the MNCs in the Dubai market could be recognized. The existing frameworks are investigated based on final findings that are either confirmed or modified. Thus, the theory testing approach has assisted researchers to observe the compare the motivation and rewards policies of the selected brands including, Tesco, ASDA, Aldi, Lidl, Zara and H&M. Based on the above inference, an authentic conclusion has been derived.
3.5 Research design
The research design is of three types, descriptive, exploratory and explanatory. In the circumstance of the current statement, Taylor et al. (2015) mentioned that each of the above designs consists individual relevance in the data collection process. In the consideration of Creswell (2014), it can be observed that the exploratory design generally explores the factors that are responsible behind the research context. It also attempts to explore the research questions and hardly intends to final or conclusive solutions to existing issues. In line with the previous context, Sultan & Yin Wong (2013) explained that exploratory research design hardly deals with the aspects that can provide final and conclusive answers to the framed research questions. However, it merely tends to explore the research subject with diversified levels of depth. It has been recognized that exploratory design can even help in evaluating the research design, sampling technique and data collection process. On the other hand, Aguinis et al. (2009) determined that explanatory research attempts to explain the explored factors in detail to derive accurate findings. It is also is defined as an effort to unite ideas to understand research cause and effect. Explanatory research determines on connections between new concept and ideas. The process does not begin until a subject has enough understanding to predict the next findings.
Finally, descriptive research approach tends to explore and explain factors that define the research concept. It also provides additional information related to the research subject. According to Creswell (2014), the descriptive design also defines the research subject after collecting its background information. Therefore, descriptive research is the combination of both exploratory and explanatory research design, which enables the researcher top to arrive at authentic conclusions. Therefore, the researcher has chosen descriptive research design over the other two in order to explain the motivation and rewards strategies of MNCs in the UAE in detail. The chosen approach has also helped to collect both the background as well as the latest information related to rewards and motivation policies followed by MNCs in the UAE market. This process has helped the researcher to related though latest findings with the background information to identify the literature gaps. Thus, has helped in address the gaps and recommend suitable strategies that can help the chosen firms to improve its motivation and rewards system in the UAE market.
3.6 Research strategy
In the statement of Taylor et al. (2015), it can be identified that is a step by step plan of action that provides acute direction to generate creative thoughts and efforts to conduct research projects. According to Venkatesh et al. (2013), accurate research strategy can help a researcher to systematically design its research schedules to produce a quality outcome and detailed reporting. Research strategy has three different components like an experiment, survey, case study and grounded theory. In the consideration of Yin (2003), the experiment had been initially applied to natural sciences with an intention to determine informal links. In other words, it can also be understood that to scrutinize whether the alteration in independent variables influence any change in dependent variables or not. The numbers of independent variables might be different. In classic experiments, two or more groups are formed, which is often denoted as the experimental group. On the other hand, Van den Heede et al. (2013) stated that survey is connected to deductive approach. It has been recognized that majority of studies that are related to the concept business management often consider survey as its research strategy. Shah & Corley (2006) asserted that survey assists the researcher to accumulate a substantial size of data from a wider strength of population. Thus, the data gathered through survey process can be evaluated effectively using inferential and descriptive analysis tools.
Moreover, Case study primarily deals with the empirical investigation to gain inference related to the contemporary phenomenon by using diversified sources of evidence. It has been noted that case study is converse to an experimental strategy that is not bound to any context. According to Taylor et al. (2015), it is most appropriate when researchers aim to gain a deeper insight of research context. In a similar manner, grounded theory is the most suitable example of mixed approach where the major focus lies on building theories. This strategy is basically adopted to estimate and clarify any type of behaviour. In the grounded theory strategy, study initiates with the establishment of theoretical frameworks.
Therefore, asserting on the natures of above strategies, it can be inferred that the study has initially followed the survey strategy. Since the quantitative participants were surveyed upon the current research context and findings were derived based on the quantitative approach. On the other hand, the professionals were also interviewed, from where descriptive data are gathered. Therefore, the consideration of survey strategy has supported both the above-discussed data evaluation processes. Conversely, the researcher has also followed the case study strategy, since, the study is partially based on secondary analysis, therefore, with the support of case study analysis, the researcher had been able to understand the dimensions of different kinds of literature satisfied the concept of motivation and rewards followed by the MNCs in the UAE market.
3.7 Research investigation
Research investigation is of two types, quantitative and qualitative. The present project is a social subject, therefore, the quantitative technique makes it more reliable to be explained. In the context of the present subject, Sultan & Yin Wong (2013) explained that quantitative research emphasizes on gathering numerical data and further generalizing it across wider sections. The major advantage of quantitative data is its figurative presentation, which becomes easier for the readers to understand the statistical figures and derived findings. According to Molina-Azorin (2012), quantitative research used in projects also helps in saving finance and time, which provides substantial data with limited involvement of researchers. In the current study, the use of quantitative data has benefitted in gathering relevant and substantial responses based on the subject, thereby, supporting the study in meeting its framed objectives. The interpretation thus helped the researcher in understanding the motivation strategies and rewards systems followed by the MNCs in the UAE market to retain its employees’ performances and efficiencies. The figurative representation of the data has further helped the researcher to derive the quantitative findings. On the other hand, qualitative research approach is descriptive in nature. In the opinion of Weiland et al. (2014), qualitative research approach focuses on the quality of data, since it cannot measure the data in quantified format. The descriptive data plays important role in constructing the meanings, which research subject holds (Olubusayo et al. 2014). The selection of the qualitative data has been effective in collecting the data in detailed format. Limited numbers of industry professionals have been interviewed to gain a deeper insight of internal information. A set of the questionnaire has been framed, based on which the interview process was conducted. The professionals had a better understanding of the industry and could share some of the corporate information, which is not possible to collect from internet articles or any government sites. Therefore, the qualitative discussion has helped the research to understand the potential of the motivation and rewards policies followed by the selected MNCs in the UEA market to retain its employee enthusiasms and performances. With the support of the both quantified and descriptive data, the researcher has been able to derive findings related to the concept, motivation and rewards system followed by the MNCs in the UAE market.
3.8 Data type
The project includes both the primary and secondary data. In the statement of Molina-Azorin (2007), primary data are collected from direct sources, thus, it is raw in nature. On the other hand, secondary data are the processed information that is collected from the authentic sources like journals, books, websites, government sites and corporate article. According to O’Gorman et al. (2014), the content of secondary information is examined and re-verified by different certified scholars to check its feasibility. Therefore, it is processed information. Primary data are current and original responses of the respondents, which contradicts the essence of secondary or process information. Primary information primary data are received from the direct sources; therefore, it is original in nature and can be easily related to the current scenario. The respondents might not provide valid answers and the probability of data manipulation is restively high. Therefore, primary subjects are unproven data thus, it needs to be triangulated with the secondary information evaluated in the literature review section for the sake of data authenticity.
On the contrary, secondary data are proven facts, thus, the possibility of including incorrect information is prevented. Moreover, the secondary subjects had helped the researcher to identify the dimensions of diversified scholars upon the essence of motivation and reward system of multinational companies like Tesco, ASDA, Lidl, Aldi, Zara and H&M operating in the UAE market to boost its employees’ performances. Past analysis conducted upon the impact of the current motivation and reward strategies followed by the MNCs in the UAE market has been gathered with the support of the secondary subjects. In the opinion of Gioia et al. (2012), it can be noted that journal is the best source to provide reliable and valid information. Since the contents are re-verified by several certified professional, therefore, the possibility of data authenticity is considerably high. The researcher has considered all possible secondary sources to collect data that supports the subjects of motivation and rewards followed in the UAE market by the MNCs. Doing so has benefited the study to gather secondary data that meet the research objectives.
3.9 Data collection
In the current study, the data are collected using both primary and secondary process. Both the data are collected from in different sources depending on its ease of accessibility. For the primary data collection process, the researcher has considered both employees and managers of MNCs operating in the UAE market. Initially, the researcher has collected employees’ feedbacks through a survey session. On the basis of research objectives, the researcher has set a well-defined questionnaire to collect the random feedbacks of employees. The researcher has collected primary samples using the professional social networking sites like LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, etc. The researcher has approached the employees of all six companies to participate in the survey session and to provide individual email ids, where the questionnaire can be forwarded. However, some were comfortable to share its email ids and some were not. Therefore, the researcher has attached the questionnaire in the social networking sites as well for gathering greater numbers of feedbacks and the some were forwarded directly to the email ids of employees. After sending the questionnaires, the researcher has made a constant follow ups to the employees to return the form within specified time with correct answers.
On the other hand, the researcher has planned to consider two HR managers from each of the six companies. A different set of the descriptive questionnaire was framed for the managers to gather detailed information regarding the motivation and reward strategies its companies’ follow to enhance its employee performance. Initially, the researcher had planned to conduct the interview session of a focused group in a common platform. The researcher aimed to fix appointments with each of the managers and requested each one to arrive at the common place for the session. However, the researcher was too busy with individual schedules, therefore, to find out a definite time had been difficult and the time of one manager was not coinciding with others. Thus, the researcher has further wasted a considerable amount of time waiting for all the managers to attend the session. Finally, to utilize the left out time effectively, the researchers have conducted a telephonic interview session with each of the HR managers of the six MNCs operating in the UAE market. In the opinion of Cragg et al. (2012), the primary data are raw in nature and collected from direct sources, therefore, the probability of data manipulation is comparatively higher. Therefore, the primary data would be triangulated with the secondary subjects evaluated in the literature review section for the sake of data authenticity.
The researcher has tried to collect the secondary data from the reliable sources like journals, books, magazines, government sites, corporate sites and other internet articles. Although the journal is considered to be the most reliable source for secondary information, yet, it did not work much for this project. The researcher has faced high complexity to collect company related information from the journals. The journal only highlighted the generic information of MNCs motivation concept followed in the UAE market and its effectiveness. However, the researcher has generally focused on the retail industry, therefore, the brands like Tesco, ASDA, Lidl, Aldi, Zara and H&M are selected. None of the journals had highlighted any of the company specific details to showcase the motivation and reward strategies followed by each of the brands to increase its employee performance. Similarly, the books, as well as the magazines, were ineffective to serve the purpose of the study. Finally, the employee review websites and the corporate sites have been effective for the researcher to gather updated information on the brands and its efforts to boost employee motivation. For the purpose of data reliability, each of the secondary information was collected from reliable sites and the content was backed authentic sources.
3.10 Data analysis
The data has been analysed keeping in mind the data types. In the statement of Olubusayo et al. (2014), it can be identified that it is considerably easy to measure the quantified data, on the other hand, the qualitative data are descriptive in nature, hence are not quantifiable. To analyse the quantitative data, each of the customers’ feedbacks was collected in an Excel sheet and calculated in the similar sheet. Initially, the responses were calculated in the percentage format and the findings were derived as per the calculations. Later on, the findings were further illustrated in the figurative format with the support of effective graphs and tables. Moreover, the findings were evaluated by linking it with the secondary sources, which were already discussed in the literature review section. Considering the statement of Molina-Azorin (2007), it can be determined that the secondary details or literature are the past proven facts, therefore, the possibility of data authenticity is comparatively higher than the primary data that is collected from direct sources. Therefore, the findings that are explicitly derived on the basis of primarily feedbacks were triangulated with the authentic secondary data and backed up by secondary sources to increase its feasibility.
On the other hand, the qualitative details are collected in the descriptive format. Herein, the professionals were requested to provide detailed answers. The feedbacks of the managers were collected in details that provided a glimpse of the internal scenario of every brand. The answers were narrated in the elaborative format, therefore, it has been analysed in the manner it has been collected. Moreover, Weiland et al. (2014) stated that the managers were the internal resource of the brands, therefore, the chances of providing biased answers are high. Hence, the interview details were also linked with the secondary information to check its reliability and reduce the chances of data misinterpretations. Both the above approach has supported the researcher to meet the objectives and derive a conclusion with the context, employee motivation and rewards policies followed in MNCs in the UAE market.
3.11 Sample size
The sample size has been considered keeping in mind the final deadline of the project. In the opinion of Cochran (2007), substantial sample size tends to consume sufficient time in the data collection process, on the other hand, sample size below 35 can create an ethical issue. In order to avoid partiality, the researcher has planned to include the entire employee base of the six selected MNCs under the population. However, it is impossible to convince the entire employee base to participate in the survey session. Therefore, only 15 employees from each MNC have shown interest participating in the survey session. However, out of 15, five from each organization has shown reluctance in filling the form and returning it in time. The researcher has taken considerable effort to follow up the respondents, both in social networking sites and in personal ids, but it had been impossible to collect feedbacks from total 90 respondents. Therefore, 10 respondents from each MNCs, including Tesco, ASDA, Lidl, Aldi, Zara and H&M were received by the researcher with correct answers. Therefore, the sample size for quantitative approach has been restricted to 60.
On the other hand, the managers were extremely busy with individual schedules. It had been difficult to convince the managers to find some leisure time for the interview session. Therefore, the researcher has initially fixed a common platform for the managers to conduct the personal interview in focused groups. However, the times of the managers were mismatching. Therefore, the researcher had to conduct the interview via telephones. Since it has been a very time-consuming process, therefore, the researcher could not interview more than 2 managers per brand. Therefore, the total strength for qualitative sample size is 10 HR managers.
3.12 Sampling technique
In the context of the similar statement, Teddlie & Yu (2007) determined that sampling technique is of two different types, including probability and not probability. It has been identified that probability sampling technique provides an equal chance to the entire population to be a part of the projects. In the probability sampling process, the respondents receive equal chance to discuss the individual point of view related to the research context. On the other hand, Cochran (2007) asserted that no probability sampling techniques select only a few of the respondents. Therefore, the researcher can be able to interview only a few of the respondents, thus, the findings need to be derived based on few of the responses.
Since it has not been possible to survey the entire population of the MNCs operating in the UAE market. Therefore, the researcher has selected 60 employees randomly. In the statement of Teddlie & Yu (2007), it can be identified that simple random sampling process is rather a bias free method, thus, it can ensure researcher to rely on the data and arrive at an authentic conclusion. By providing equal opportunity to the participants, there is a high chance for the data analysed are right and drawn inferences are accurate. Therefore, the simple random sampling process has also helped the researcher to save a considerable amount of time and finance. Hence, the selected approach has been facilitating in understand the significance of motivation and reward system in an organization. Moreover, it also helped to identify the motivation and rewards efforts taken by the MNCs in the UAE market to boost in employees’ performances.
However, for the qualitative process, on probability sampling technique has been taken, where few of the HR managers were selected and asked certain questions. The feedbacks of the managers were collected in descriptive format, therefore, the elaborative answers have helped the researchers to gather relevant corporate details to satisfy the research context.
3.13 Ethical Considerations
Following the ethical measure has helped the researcher to decrease the probability of data misinterpretations and manipulation that could have worsened the quality of this research project. In the background of the present context, Arnold (2013) asserted that ethical consideration in projects always determines the difference between a tolerable and intolerable behaviour. In the present project, the researcher has ensured a free and fair data collection process. Each of the respondents was offered with a common platform to share individual views with respect to the research questions. Moreover, the respondents were not interrupted with any partial or disturbing gestures. The researcher has ensured that the respondents remain comfortable while participating in the survey session. Furthermore, the personal details of the respondents were kept under strict confidential measures and none of the private information was revealed in the public forum. The survey was conducted by keeping in mind the sentiments of the community. Therefore, none of the questions encourage any social vulnerability. Therefore, the respondents were provided with a comfortable platform to respond to the questions in a free manner.
Additionally, identities of the managers would not be revealed to the public. The corporate details received from the managers have been exclusively used for the project purpose and has been trashed soon after the project completion. Moreover, the corporate related information was also maintained with proper restricted tools, therefore, none of the details was disclosed to any third party. Finally, genuine and authentic research tools have been used in the present projects without including any form of interference.
3.14 Accessibility issue
In the background of the similar statement, Cragg et al. (2012) asserted that accessibility issue generally averts the possibility performing data collection process in a smooth manner. Thus, it tends to affect the timely data collection process. It has been difficult to gather updated secondary details related to all the six companies operating in the UAE market. The study demanded the motivation and the reward strategies undertaken by the six MNCs including Tesco, ASDA, Lidl, Aldi, Zara and H&M. However, it has been difficult to find out current secondary details from the reliable sources like journals and books that could highlight the current motivation and reward policies undertaken by the above-specified brands in the UAE market. Therefore, the overall secondary data collection process had been extremely time to consume for the researcher, which has partially affected the quality of data analysis section. Therefore, internet served to be a potential source that has helped the researcher to over the accessibility issue and provided few update information which was sufficient to justify the research context. On the other hand, it was tough to interview each of the employees of the six MNCs, therefore, the researcher had to adopt the survey process and collect the primary feedbacks by sending over the questionnaire via social networking sites or provided email ids. Both the previous alternatives had been effective for the researcher to overcome the mentioned issues.
3.15 Research limitations
In the statement of Gioia et al. (2012), it can be understood that the research limitations are the characteristics of a design methodology that creates an influence or impacts the interpretations derived from the findings of the research. While conducting the research work, it has been observed that the time frame has been the major limitation of the project, since, all the activities were restricted within a specified period of time and thus, it had been extremely difficult for the researcher to meet the completion time. The above disturbance has prevented the researcher to collect detailed and quality data on the current subject; else the conclusion would have been more appropriate. O n the other hand, the managers were reluctant to allocate a mutual date for the interview rounds, therefore, with other choice left the researcher had to opt for the telephonic interview session. The researcher had face lots of complexities like cross connections, executives’ interruptions, line holding, disconnections and network issues in the telephonic session. Therefore, the quality of the data has degraded to a certain extent. However, the employees complained the questionnaire to be too lengthy, therefore, have taken extended the time limit. Finally, the interviewee’s responses were subjected to biases, since, none of the managers would prefer speaking foul about its companies. Hence, the probability of deriving authentic conclusion would be less. Finally, the data triangulation process had certainly helped the study to lower the impact of above-discussed limitation.
3.16 Time Frame
Each of the activities is planned by keeping in mind the completion time of the project. Therefore, it can be estimated that the researcher in this project had adequate time to conduct the research process and meet the deadline. Every activity referred in the time line carried individual relevance in the project. In the very initial week, the researcher has introduced the topic selected for the project purpose. In the second week, the aims and objectives of the study have been framed based on the research title. In the second half of the same week, the researcher has planned to collect the secondary data aligned to the research objectives. Moreover, in the third week, the research methodology has been conducted, where the research paradigms that are needed for the data collection process has also been discussed. The researcher collected the quantitative and qualitative feedbacks from the selective respondents in both fourth and fifth weeks to conduct the data analysis section. The primary feedbacks of the selected respondents have facilitated the researcher to derive the final findings of the project. In the last week, the conclusion has been drawn after aligning the findings with the objectives and check whether the hypothesis is set or not. Based on the research gaps, suitable recommendations are suggested in the similar week to help the researcher to over the research issues.
|Topics||Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Week 4||Week 5||Week 6|
|Illustrate the aim and objectives of the study|
|Collection of the secondary data|
|Determination of the research Methodology||
|Accomplish quantitative and qualitative responses.|
|Objective linking and recommendation|
Table 1: Gantt chart
4.0 Quantitative analysis
- Are you satisfied with the current rewards policies of your organization?
Table 2: Employees’ response on the potency of current rewards policies
|Options||Frequency||Total Respondents||% Response|
Figure 3: Employees’ response on the potency of current rewards policies
The respondents have provided mixed responses with reference to the current statement. 28% of the employees working in MNCs, UAE are just satisfied with its current reward policies. 25% of the employees are dissatisfied with the present rewards polices and 18% are highly satisfied.
Inference gathered from the previous figure reflects that majority of the employee are just satisfied with the current rewards policies of the chosen MNCs operating in the UAE market. Dasí et al. (2017) asserted that numerous types of researches are made in the past showing that reward polices, if strategized effectively, can leave a positive impact on employees’ efficiency level (refer to section 2.6). Therefore, it can be identified from the above statistics that the organizations are not efficient in incorporating the right set of right rewards to motivate its employees.
- Tick on the reward policy that motivates you to improve your performance?
Table 3: Rewards policy that motivate employee performances
|Options||Frequency||Total Respondents||% Response|
|HIP payouts plan||18||60||30%|
|Employee recognition scheme||11||60||18%|
Figure 4: Rewards policy that motivate employee performances
It has been identified that 30% of the employees believe that HIP payout plan to be encouraging enough to enhance employee performance. 25% of the employees feel the same for health insurance and 18% have reported for employee recognition scheme.
It can be identified from the above statement that majority of the employees working at MNCs, in the UAE market believes HIP plan to be the most effective rewards strategy to encourage better performance. MNCs operating in the UAE market are offering its employees with a HIP payouts plan after turning 62 (The H&M Way. 2013, refer to section 2.7). The brands also planned planned that from 2021onwards, internal resources would be eligible to obtain its first payouts after gaining ten years of experience in the same organization (The H&M Way. 2013, refer to section 2.7). The employees find it as a better retirement plan that can be financially helpful in the future.
- Which kinds of reward encourage you the most?
Table 4: Preferable reward forms
|Options||Frequency||Total Respondents||% Response|
Figure 5: Preferable reward forms
The chosen respondents’ feedbacks were indifferent in nature. It has been witnessed that 62% of the employees believe monetary rewards to be best to retain employees motivation within organization. On the other hand, 38% of the samples have reported for non monitory reward policies.
The feedback received from the above chart determines that majority of the sample derives motivation from monetary rewards. Schaller et al. (2017) asserted that staff generally requires both financial and non financial rewards at the organization to retain individual motivation. Therefore, both stable environment, as well as a standardized compensation package, would be essential to developed employee motivation (refer to section 2.5). It has also been observed that majority of the employees have voted for financial rewards when given the option of choosing any one. Thus, financial rewards are mandatory and non monetary rewards like appreciation and recognition are secondary.
- Does the reward policies of your organization drive you to work overtime?
Table 5: Potency of reward polices to encourage overtime work
|Options||Frequency||Total Respondents||% Response|
Figure 6: Potency of reward polices to encourage overtime work
It has been determined that the opinions of the employees were indifferent from one another. However, majority of the samples were in the favor of the present topic.43% of the respondents believed that the current rewards policies of organizations do encourage employees to work overtime. On the other hand, 35% of the employees have contradicted the subject.
Inference can drawn from the above figures that maximum percentages of employees are satisfies with the current rewards offerings and thus are convinced to assist its organization with overtime service. It has been recognized that majority of the workers seek for extra income, therefore, employees are generally convinced to work overtime if proper finance is provided. Employees are always encourages with better incentives and bonus schemes.
- Do you find “focused group” discussion within organization to be a helpful method?
Table 6: Importance of “focused group” discussion at workplace
|Options||Frequency||Total Respondents||% Response|
Figure 7: Importance of “focused group” discussion at workplace
It has been perceived from the respondents’ respondents that 75% of the staff believes that “focused group” discussion process has helped employees to resolve its issues at organization. On the other hand, 20% of the samples considered that “focused group” has not served any benefit to employees. Moreover, 5% of the samples preferred remaining neutral.
It has been observed that majority of the employees have found “focused group” discussion to be a useful method to resolve workforce related issues. In the circumstance of the similar statement, Bonache & Zárraga-Oberty (2017) determined that majority of the brands also conducting a focused group method to evaluate employees’ issues in detail and also to recognize effective strategies to improve employee motivation (refer to section 2.6).
- Suggest a suitable strategy which your brand needs to implement in its employee motivation schemes?
Table 7: Suitable recommendations
|Options||Frequency||Total Respondents||% Response|
|Identifying individual schemes||17||60||28%|
|Emphasizing on employees issue||43||60||72%|
Figure 8: Suitable recommendations
The diversified responses of chosen samples reveal that the organizations are basically imitating the policies of rivals to retain employee motivation and maintain competition in the market. Therefore, 72% of the employees believe that organization needs to focus on employee issues and 28%believes that MNCs needs to identify individual reward schemes.
The collective responses of the samples denote that employees believe that organizations needs to come up with its originality and also to emphasize on employees’ issue other than imitating competitors’ policies. Williams & Lee (2016) stated that organizations needs to understand its own business culture based on which new schemes are to be developed to enhance its employee dedication and motivation within organization (refer to section 2.6).
4.1 Qualitative analysis
- What employee motivation policies your organization follows?
The first and the second mangers of ASDA stated that different employee well being and development process have been implemented within organization to enhance employee motivation. Moreover, Tesco’s managers stated that Tesco has introduced its pay policies for its top executives in 2011 to avoid the likelihood of stakeholders’ revolts. Similarly, Zara’s managers stated that the effective training session is conducted for its employees increase expertise as per organizational functions. H&M focuses to maintain sustainable working environment. Aldi provide stable compensation and Lidl offers stable internal culture.
- What are your current rewards policies? Kindly discuss in detail
Tesco’s managers stated that “Save As You Earn” has been introduced where employees having one years of experienced in high interest account are capable for Tesco’s shares. H&M offers HIP plans to its employees. ASDA has introduced employee recognition scheme, where employees are offered with monetary rewards based on its customer service performances. Zara’s managers reported that the brand has further introduced health insurance and commission plans for its employees. Aldi’s managers believe that employees just need monetary support, thus, the brand explictely emphasizes on the compensation part. Information received from Lidl’s managers reflects that it offers its employees with the 10% discounts on all its in-store products.
- How far your motivation and reward policies impacted on employees’ performances
Aldi’s managers stated that the offering employees with stable and standardized compensation have helped the brand to gain its workforces’ support. Majority of the employees are confident about the organization’s monetary rewards structure and are convince to work overtime. Both Tesco’s and ASDA’s employees denoted that its employee survey process are effective to address employees’ issues and retain its motivation. H&M’s HIP plan has helped its management to gain employees’ trust and to encourage its experienced resources to serve the organization for longer duration. Zara believes in professional culture, thus, its recruits employees having high work passion and can handle unexpected pressures. Lidle has already managd to motivate its employees with better work culture.
- Recommend a suitable reward initiative that you want your organization to implement for improving staff motivation.
The managers of Tesco, ASDA , H&M and Lidl believes that organization needs to emphasize more on its employees’ issues and needs to come up with better methods that can help employees to deal with organizational pressures. On the other hand, manager of ZARA and Aldi stated that organizations needs to work on its individual methods other than imitating its rivals.
Conclusion and recommendations
The present chapter would arrive at a conclusion based on the findings of the primary derived from the feedbacks of the samples. The findings would be further linked with the framed objectives to judge its data reliability. Depending on the conclusion, the researcher would identify some gaps in the project, based on which the suitable strategies would be recommended that would facilitate the MNCs operating in the UAE market to improve its employee motivation and reward system. Moreover, the chapter would also discuss about its limitations and future scopes.
5.1.1 Linking with objectives
To assess the motivation policies adopted by the MNCs operating in UAE to improve its employees’ performances
Question 1 under section 4.0 meets the current objective. The question reflects that the fact that maximum numbers of employees working under the chosen firms are just satisfied with its existing reward strategies. In the similar manner, question 1 under section 4.1 further satisfies the objectives, where the collective responses of the managers signify that MNCs are usually focusing to improve its employee benefits and workplace culture at workplace to retain maximum employee motivation. The section speaks about the motivation efforts of the MN CS, UAE and its effect on employees. Thus, the objective is met.
To identify the reward strategies undertaken by the MNCs operating in the UAE market
Question 2 and 3 under section 4.0 meet the current objective. The above question discusses the fact that majority of the employees have claimed of being motivated with the HIP payouts plan of its employees. Additionally, the primary feedbacks of the employees are partially inclined towards monetary reward policies that the other motivational rewards. On the other hand, the collective answers of the managers gathered from question 2 of section 4.1 reveals that employees are generally influenced by health insurance and commission rewards. The above sections discuss about the rewards strategies followed in the MNCs, UAE. Hence, the objective is met.
To analyze the impact of both motivation and reward strategies of MNCs, UAE on its employee performances
Under section 4.0, question 4 and 5 satisfy the current objective. The referred section states that the reward policies of the MNCs, in the UAE market have managed to create a positive impact on its employees’ performances. Moreover, question 5 denotes under the similar section signifies that the employees working under the chosen companies have found the ‘focused group’ discussion approach to be useful and creates considerable impact on its performance. Additionally, question 3 of section 4.1 determines that employees’ survey is the best method to understand its degree of motivation. Thus, the objective is justified.
To recommend strategic initiatives that can help the MNCs to implement better motivation and reward system to ensure employee productivity in the UAE market
Question 6 of section 4.0 states that emphasizing on employee issue would be the best suitable efforts the organizations can implement to improve its employee motivation figure. In the similar manner, the feedbacks of the managers collected in question 4 of section 4.1 determines that MNCs needs to focus on originality and come up with individual inputs based on its employees’ natures. The sections discuss about recommended strategies to improve the rewards and motivational process in the MNCs, UAE. Thus objective is met.
Inference can be drawn from previous discussions that employees are usually motivated more with effective financial rewards. However, MNCs are emphasizing more on improving its cultures and recognition programs, which partially serves the intention. Therefore, the brands need to cut down its underperforming assets and unnecessary expenditures and use the same on employees’ incentives or other forms of financial rewards to enhance employee job satisfaction at work.
5.2 Limitations and Future scope
The short deadline has been the major limitation of the project. The data collection process has been considerably time consuming, which hampered the quality data analysis. If the time limit could have been extended, the quality of data evaluation process would have been improved further. On the contrary, the secondary information of the project is collected from authentic sources and the primary feedbacks are further linked with secondary sources to maintain data authenticity. Thus, it would help future readers to receive reliable information regarding the reward and motivation policies followed in MNCs, UAE.
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