Impact of In-store Promotion on Brand Loyalty and Purchase Decision Making: Case Study of 3 Mobile

Executive summary

When it comes to retail business in brick and mortar system, organisations in the modern era prioritise in-store promotion policies. The current research study attempts to test this particular situation and in this context, the case of 3 Mobile has been analysed. The overall dissertation has been segregated into six chapters. The introductory chapter promotes the aim, objectives and research questions along with the background context. Research rationale has been discussed in the chapter highlighting the significance of the study. Adding to that, the structure of the entire research study has been presented in the chapter. Chapter 2 evaluates a range of literatures concerning in-store promotion policies and its impact on brand loyalty and sales promotion. The evaluation of the literatures has reflected the fact that effective in-store promotion policies could help in improving the brand loyalty and the sales generation scenario. Chapter 3 points some of the key research methods that have been determined by the researcher. It has been found that positivism philosophy is suitable for the research study while the descriptive research design and deductive research approach have been followed. The research evaluates quantitative and qualitative data to draw conclusion over the in-store promotion policies of 3 Mobile. Chapter 4 conducts a thorough quantitative and qualitative data analysis assessing the responses of the customers and the store managers of 3 Mobile respectively. Majority of the customers are found to be influenced by the in-store promotion policies while similar fact has been found assessing the responses of the store managers. Based on the findings, conclusion has been derived in the next chapter. The research findings have been linked with the research outcomes and have been found to be relevant in addressing the research aim. On the basis of the findings, 3 Mobile has been recommended to focus on cross selling, feedback evaluation and greater accessibility of loyalty points. Finally, a personal development reflection has been promoted at the end of the paper.

 

 

Acknowledgement

First of all, I would like to thank my supervisor for mentoring me throughout the research study. Without the guidance, it would be very difficult for me to complete the study. I would also like to thank my colleagues and friends for assisting me whenever I asked for help. Adding to that, I convey my gratitude to the customers and store managers of 3 Mobiles for taking participation during the primary research. I would like to thank ……………………………………………….. for the supervision during the course of the research study. Last but not the least, I am grateful to my parents who have constantly supported me during my difficulties.

Thank you all

Yours sincerely,

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.0 Introduction:

Online shopping is the most preferred mode of shopping for modern day customers. However, the in-store ambience still plays a significant role in determining the organisational brand image and how customers would perceive it. There has been an ongoing argument on whether businesses are required to shift from the traditional brick and mortar system to brick and click process. However, Gedenk and Neslin (2009) argued that although the brick and click process has turned out to be a hit among the contemporary customers, strong presence in physical environment is still required to ensure optimum brand popularity. Taking into consideration this particular fact, the current research study has been conducted on whether in-store brand promotion influence brand loyalty and customers’ purchase decision making process.

The chapter introduces the context of the study along with a range of background information. At the outset, the background information has been presented relating to the reason for choosing the research context. Accordingly, the research particulars such as aim, objectives and research questions are highlighted. The chapter also depicts the purpose of the study along with the research rationale while the overall structure of the dissertation has been presented at the end.

1.1 Background information:

The retailing business throughout the world is experiencing a change of trends in terms of customers, tastes, or buying behaviours. With the emergence of the Web 2.0 era, the process of communication has been significantly transformed. Whether it is a business to business (B2B) communication or a business to customers (B2C) communication process, people now prefer communicating more in an online environment (Mulhern and Padgett, 2005). Adding to that, the strong presence of ecommerce business platform has another reason why customers prefer online shopping more compared to shopping in a brick and mortar environment (Bell and Lattin, 2008). However, relying only on the ecommerce business procedure perhaps might be a mistake for contemporary business organisations as several customers still prefer visiting a physical store and shop.

Considering the case of UK, there has been stiff competition in the retail mobile sector with leading brands like T-Mobile, 3 Mobile etc competing for a limited number of customers. Apart from the strong presence in the online environment, these brands have made presence felt in the high streets and more recently in the shopping malls. As per Feinberg et al. (2012), the crowded environment in the never ending shopping malls highlights the fact that customers still prefer the tangible elements of the store along with the in-store elements. Another interesting fact is that the supermarkets in the UK are found to be closer to each other perhaps for competition purpose. However, Mulhern and Leone (2011) contradicted that the reason presence of the supermarkets within close range is perhaps to lure the target customers of the competitors.

Since offline marketing is still considered to be a determining factor retailers prioritise an effective marketing mix strategy in the physical shopping environment for ensuring business sustainability. As cited by Bucklin and Lattin (2012), the customers’ shopping experience could often be influenced by in-store ambience resulting in alterations in brand loyalty. Therefore, retailers in contemporary business environment are focusing more on the in-store environment in order to enhance the shopping experience of the customers. Popular retail stores often follow points for purchase, promotions, while the shopping environment is made better with the likes of background music or extra supportive store representatives (Narasimhan et al. 2006). Such processes are followed to encourage the customers to shop for products and increased activities at the point of sale.

A considerable number of customers in the modern era have a tendency to evaluate the ecommerce businesses based on the infrastructure of the physical stores. Lam (2011) studied that strong presence in the brick and mortar system would allow business organisations to leverage the brand name in the online business environment and prosper in the sector. Although there are exceptional cases with the likes of Amazon, eBay etc, majority ecommerce sites have experienced success perhaps due to strong presence of the offline stores. Ailawadi and Neslin (2008) attributed that customers would always opt for safety and security when it comes to online purchasing. Therefore, strong presence in the physical market environment would assure customers reliability in the online environment as well.

In reference to a recent survey conducted by PWC on the UK’s retail sector, customers have become more knowledgeable and rely on personal experience prior to purchase new products. The survey results also reveal that regardless of ecommerce experience, retail stores are still driving the growth (PwC, 2014). The fact can be supported by the proposition of Ailawadi et al. (2001) as the author acknowledged that improving customer loyalty and influencing the purchase decision making in the physical environment is more feasible compared to the online environment. The customers are presented live demo of the tangible products prior to the actual purchase in the retail stores and the process can significantly influence the purchase decision making. However, similar approach is not feasible in an online environment.

Considering the case of 3 Mobile, the brand is a household name in the Mobile and Telecommunication sector. After the foundation in the year 2000, the brand has revolutionised the sector with its wide range of mobile hardware components and networking services. 3 Mobile has strong presence in both online and offline environment. While the official ecommerce site of the brand has turned out to be increasingly popular among the customers, the retail outlets account more traffic compared to competitors. With the ‘give, engage, sustain’ philosophy, 3 Mobile is thriving for optimum customer satisfaction by conducting a responsible business (Three, 2014).

3 Mobile is considered as one of the leading mobile and telecommunication brands in the UK. The growing traffic in the retail outlets signifies the popularity of the brand among the customers. Therefore, the current research study would investigate whether the in-store promotion activities followed by the brand are influencing the brand loyalty scenario and whether customers are encouraged to alter the purchase decision making.

1.2 Research aim:

The current research study attempts to investigate the impact of in-store promotion activities on brand loyalty. The research would also determine whether the in-store promotion process impacts on the buying decision of the customers. In the due course of the study, the case of 3 Mobile has been analysed and the results from the research project would highlight 3 Mobile has experienced improved brand loyalty and sales following in-store promotion.

1.3 Research objectives:

Following research objectives are meant to be addressed in the due course of the research study:

  • To evaluate the in-store promotion procedures followed by 3 Mobile.
  • To determine the impact of in-store promotion process on the brand loyalty concerning 3 Mobile.
  • To analyse whether in-store promotion activities followed by 3 Mobile are influencing the buying decisions of the customers.
  • To recommend strategies to 3 Mobile regarding in-store promotions so that improved brand loyalty and sales volume can be experienced.

1.4 Research questions:

In order to support the research objectives, following research questions are going to be solved throughout the study:

  • What are the in-store promotion procedures followed by 3 Mobile?
  • What kind of impact do the in-store promotion strategies impose on the brand loyalty scenario for 3 Mobile?
  • Do the in-store promotion activities influence the customers of 3 Mobile to alter buying decision?
  • What could 3 Mobile do improve the in-store promotion process so that improved brand loyalty and sales can be feasible?

1.5 Purpose of the study:

The primary purpose of the current research study is to analyse the impact of the in-store promotion activities on the perception of the customers. Modern day customers are turning out to be more knowledgeable and aware of the latest industry happenings thanks to the globalisations process and the improved reach through internet. Customers have develop a tendency to compare and contrast similar products before actual purchase. Not only the products but also the in-store environment and presentation are considered as determinants by the customers that could impact on the buying decision making process. Therefore, the research would investigate whether the in-store promotion activities followed by 3 Mobile has helped improving the brand loyalty and sales. On the basis of the findings, a generalised conclusion would be derived.

1.5 Research rationale:

In-store promotion activities have turned out to be pivotal at least in the modern day context as recent reports suggest that contemporary customers are considering the ability of the retail stores when it comes to presentation. Customers also consider the in-store environment as a determining factor before actual purchase of a product. Since 3 Mobile has a strong presence in both online and physical environment researching the case of the brand would help establishing the fact whether in-store promotion influence brand loyalty or customers’ purchase decision making or both. Apart from that, the findings can help organisations realising the significant of in-store promotion as majority of the organisations are neglecting the brick and mortar infrastructure and opting for ecommerce business. Despite the rapid growth of the ecommerce businesses, reports suggest that retail stores still lead in terms of growth in the UK‘s retail industry. Therefore, findings from the study could help several retail organisations in the country to resolve the dilemma regarding prioritising the in-store promotion.

1.6 Scope of the study:

Findings from the study can help retail firms in the UK to understand the significance of in-store promotion activities. Since the study is focusing on the case of 3 Mobile, the study can help the brand evaluating the current scenario and determine any possible areas for improvement. On the other hand the findings from the study can be helpful for 3 Mobile as well as other retail organisations understand the perception of the contemporary customers as quantitative data analysis has been conducted considering the responses of the customers of 3 Mobile. Retail organisations in the UK including 3 Mobile can assess such findings and conduct business accordingly so that improved brand loyalty can sales can be experienced.

1.7 Dissertation structure:

For better evaluation of the research context, a structural approach has been followed to conduct the research study. The entire study has been segregated into five different chapters concerning, introductory chapter, literature review, research methodology, data analysis and conclusion with recommendations. Keeping aside the introductory chapter, the rest of the chapters have been briefed below.

Chapter 2: Literature review

The chapter depicts the theoretical context concerning the research taking into consideration the perception of various authors and scholars. Theories regarding in-store promotion activities, brand loyalty and customers’ decision making have been critically reviewed in this chapter.

Chapter 3: Research methodology

A thorough discussion of the chosen research methods has been presented in this chapter. Methods regarding research philosophy, approach and design have been highlighted along with specific justifications. Adding to that, methods regarding data type, data collection process and sampling mechanism have been depicted. Finally, the chapter highlights a times scale in the form of a Gantt chart showcasing the time horizon concerning the research study.

Chapter 4: Data analysis and findings

The chapter showcases quantitative and qualitative data analysis on the basis of which, primary research findings have been achieved. Quantitative data have been represented graphically using tables and graphs that represent the perception of the customers of 3 Mobile. On the other hand, qualitative data represent the insights of the marketing managers of the organisation. On the basis the quantitative and qualitative findings, conclusion has been derived in the final chapter.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations

This is the final chapter in which, a conclusion of the overall research study has been presented. The research objectives have been linked with the research findings. Several recommendations have been provided so that 3 Mobile can improve the in-store promotion activities and ensure improved brand loyalty and sales. The chapter ends with highlighting the research limitations and future scope.

 

 

Chapter 2

Literature review

2.0 Introduction:

The chapter promotes a range of theories and literatures concerning in-store promotion procedure and its impact on organisational brand loyalty and customers’ purchase decision making process. In this context, several past studies have been evaluated to analyse the theoretical context. Various marketing models have been evaluated to judge the research context while the propositions of various scholars have been critically reviewed. The chapter has attempted to establish a theoretical platform for the research study on the basis of which data analysis has been conducted in the later part.

2.1 Role of marketing and promotion in contemporary business environment:

Marketing and promotion have turned out to be two of the most significant business functions in the contemporary business environment. Since customers are becoming more knowledgeable by time it is important for business organisations to promote brand values to acquire new customers while retaining the existing ones. In the words of Dhar and Raju (2007), the nature of core message promotion is crucial as modern customers have a tendency to perceive brand image based on promoted messages. Overall, an effective promotion activity would ensure influence customer awareness, customer engagement, message promotion activity and word of mouth.

Awareness:

Improved awareness is a primary expectation for a certain promotion strategy. Inman et al. (2010) acknowledged that organisations in the modern era need to focus on improving customer awareness to enhance brand popularity. Wu et al. (2011) supported the fact by acknowledging that customers, who are more aware, are likely to purchase more in the future. Therefore, business organisations are focusing on several promotion procedures whether online or offline to increase customer awareness and promote organisational brand image.

Engagement:

Customer engagement is another prime objective in any promotion activity. Organisations have understood that increased participation of the customers during the promotional campaigns helps in making a product more popular within the target market (Mitchell et al. 2005). However, Yoo et al. (2010) contradicted that improved engagement might not always ensure greater product popularity as negative influence can affect the brand image. Despite the fact, reports suggest that engaging the customers helps organisations to develop new ideas which can help addressing perception of the target customers. Contemporary business organisations are using several online channels to engage the customers. Leading social media channels such as Facebook, Twitter etc are used to engage the customers while several organisations also use company specific applications for customer engagement (Statista, 2014).

Message promotion:

An effective promotion activity would likely promote the concerned message to the target audience so that increased level of awareness can be created. Park and Lennon (2009) argued that a considerable number of promotional campaigns fail to make impact due to failure of promoting the concerned message or possibly miscommunication between the brand and the customers. For instance, the case of P&G can be considered with as the brand failed with the promotion campaign in Poland. The advertisement used to showcase a woman washing the hair with the latest hair care product in a pool adjoining to the house. However the campaign failed as majority people in Poland do not have a pool (Statista, 2014). As mentioned by Pauwels et al. (2002), the promotional message needs to be simple yet effective so that the target customers can perceive the message easily.

Word of mouth:

One of the major objectives of the contemporary marketing and promotion activities is to boost the word of mouth mechanism among the target customers. As cited by Naik and Kay (2009), the word of mouth process can promptly influence brand popularity. However, Raghubir (2004) contradicted that negative word of mouth can similarly affect the organisational brand image. For instance, The ‘hashtag’ campaign followed by McDonalds turned out to be a failure among the US customers and the negative ‘tweets’ of the parents significantly affected the brand image in the region. On the contrary, positive word of mouth is likely to contribute to the brand value promotion. Such has been the case for 3 Mobile as the brand has benefitted from the positive word of mouth process (PwC, 2014).

2.2 Customers’ decision making model:

The customers’ decision making model highlights the behaviouristic aspects of the cognitive customers while also referring the emotional customers. The model is concerned with the marketing inputs that might influence impulsive buying of the customers. These inputs can be referred as various marketing activities along with socio cultural initiatives or the organisations (Baker et al. 2004). The changing trend regardless of business sectors reflects the fact that customers are not just bothered with the product specifications and that various socio cultural elements influence the buying decision making process.

Considering a standard retailing practice, the marketing initiative of an organisation ranges from product mix to promotion, pricing and distribution. As discussed by Eroglu et al. (2003), findings the right mix of the marketing elements is a critical challenge for the retail organisation. Majority of the retail chains focus on the macro level when it comes to marketing initiatives. However, Stilley et al. (2010) argued that similar strategy might not be effective for in-store promotion process and that a micro level marketing strategy would be more suitable in such business environment. Macro level of marketing strategies such as promotion using mass media is considered to be compatible within a wider region. However, in-store marketing process is needed to be complemented with micro level marketing initiatives such as in-store advertisements, displays in point of purchase or perhaps background music.

Verhoef et al. (2007) strongly agree that a well planned marketing initiative can he effective in increasing the sales as impulsive buying is a likely phenomena in such scenario. The impulsive buying is found to be a consequence for non economic rewards during advertising campaigns. Apart from the micro and macro level of marketing initiatives, the socio cultural environment plays a significant role in influencing the target customers. As per Löfgren (2005), the socio cultural elements work as reliability and assurance factors that ultimately influence customers prior to product purchase. The socio cultural environment is also found to be influencing when it comes to non commercial influences. Taking into consideration the proposition of Wang (2010), social cultural aspects like friends, family, peers, culture and social class influence customers’ buying decision making process.

2.3 Significance of in-store promotion process:

In-store promotion has turned out to be a significant aspect for the customers and the respective buying decision making process. As per a recent survey, majority customers make the purchase decisions deciding on the visual merchandising and shop display. As mentioned by Baker et al. (2002), gone have those days when people just relied on the word of mouth process to make the purchase decision. Survey results implicate the fact that more than 70% of the total purchase has been accounted because of the store display and in-store promotion activities (Statista, 2014). Therefore, Kopalle et al. (2009) truly mentioned that in-store promotion process can result in profit maximisation, customer attraction, brand image enhancement and product promotion.

Profit maximisation:

The store display and store environment is likely to add value to the products and draw the attention of the customers. Neff (2009) cited that customers are particularly attracted to the visual merchandises in a well displayed store environment. Adding to that, the visual merchandises are found to be influencing for impulsive buying (Iriworldwide.co.uk, 2014). As a consequence, profit maximisation is likely following in-store promotion process.

Customer attraction:

Attractive product display in the retail shop generally draws the attention of the customers and accordingly, increased sales can be experienced. Dodds et al. (2011) acknowledged that with the increasing competition in the retail sector, organisations need to adapt a range of innovative marketing initiatives so that a competitive edge can be achieved over the rivals. Attractive infrastructure of the retail outlets is likely to draw the attention of the customers and influence the customers to purchase in the stores. As mentioned by Neslin et al. (2006), it would be quite difficult for the organisations to increase the sales if the products get unnoticed by the customers.

Brand image enhancement:

According to Ehrman (2011), displaying several product features can help effectively marketing the products in retail store. Leading retail stores prefer using customised retail display settings to highlight several product features so that more awareness can be created among the customers. Some retail outlets even use banners and various informative signs to draw the attention of the potential customers so that target customers can be physically engaged with the concerned products. As cited by Park and Lennon (2009), greater customer engagement can boost the sales volume. 3 Mobile displays the products in a rounded table with an informative tag being provided with each of the products for detailing. The approach is supposed to create greater brand awareness and at the same time enhance brand image.

Product promotion:

One of the basic objectives of the in-store promotion process is to bolster the product promotion process increasing the possibility of similar product purchase. Although a generalised product promotion at a macro level marketing is conducted, by Pauwels et al. (2002) emphasised that product promotion in in-store environment would be more specific and direct. Therefore, majority of the modern retail organisations prefer relevant retail fixtures in order to promote the respective product and services to the potential customers.

2.4 Popular in-store promotion strategies in contemporary business environment:

Retailing in the contemporary business environment has been revolutionised along with the advancement in the field of technology. Contemporary business organisations are following several in-store promotion strategies with the likes of loyalty cards, personal shopping assistance, radio frequency identification or electronic labels in order to create improved awareness among the customers and improve brand loyalty. Dhar and Raju (2007) acknowledged that contemporary retail organisations are using a blend of technological services to improve the in-store promotion process and increase awareness.

Ambience:

Ambience has turned out to be a crucial in-store promotion initiative as it often influences the customers’ shopping experience. Taking into consideration the words of Yoo et al. (2010), in-store ambience can be regarded as an effective promotion tool and a considerable number of customers prioritise the ambience factor prior to the actual purchase. The in-store environmental elements often influence the psychological and behavioural aspects of the customers. As a consequence, customers purchase decision can be influenced. Therefore, retail organisations in the modern era focus on the store infrastructure so that customers can be lured to purchase the products.

Loyalty cards:

The emergence of the loyalty cards is a more recent phenomenon as far as the retail industry in concerned. Several retail stores are providing loyalty cards to the customers for ensuring long term loyalty from the customers while at the same time ensuring repeat purchase. Park and Lennon (2009) argued that ensuring loyalty is a critical context although the loyalty card can be a step towards the right direction. The German retail brand Metro is one of the first firms using loyalty discounts. The brand used to provide ‘Payback’ points to the customers who visit the retail stores and the points could be redeemed in repeat purchases. However, by Pauwels et al. (2002) contradicted that the efficacy of the loyalty cards is limited as the cards are only useful in the concerned retail chains. Despite the fact, Dhar and Raju (2007) referred loyalty cards as an effective in-store promotion tool as repeat visit of the customers is more likely following the strategy.

Personal Shopping Assistance (PSA):

Personal Shopping Assistance (PSA) is a recent in-store promotion approach which is turning out to be more popular in the retail outlets. The technological device is generally attached to the customers shopping cart as soon as the customers enter the stores. The PSA use to track the shopping history of the respective customers through accessing the ‘Payback’ cards and prepares a recommended shopping list based on the search history. In the words of Park and Lennon (2009), the in-store marketing approaches are completely influenced with the emergence of new and enhanced technologies and the brands are utilising the technological platforms to ensure brand loyalty. Introduction of PSA in the stores help improving the shopping experience of the customers and the customers generally develop improved brand loyalty in the due course.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID):

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been a new technology in the retailing business. A considerable number of business organisations are using the technology to obtain product information from the concerned products that helps in reducing the overall purchase time at the point of sale. As mentioned by Naik and Kay (2009), customers can often get frustrated if longer time is accounted in the point of sale and if proper queuing mechanism is absent. Therefore, implementing RFID technology within store management process has turned out to be a successful marketing initiative. In the US region, Walmart was among the first organisations to implement RFID technology within the supermarkets. Since the store traffic was increasing, Walmart was failing to reduce the queue at the point of sale and customer dissatisfaction was inevitable. However, the implementation of the RFID technology had turned out to be a success as improved customer loyalty had been experienced by the organisation (Store.mintel.com, 2014).

Electronic labels and advertising:

Considering the contemporary in-store promotion policies, electronic labels and advertising is one of the popular strategies followed by retail organisations for enhancing customer awareness. Pauwels et al. (2002) emphasised that customers would look for product information prior to purchase and lack of product information could influence potential customers to look for products elsewhere. The electronic shelf labels are used to demonstrated product information and any available offers so that a certain degree of awareness could be created among the visited customers. modern day retail outlets are generally Wi-Fi enabled and the electronic shelves can be monitored or altered from a single computer terminal also. The device can also be used for advertising or promotion. For instance, 3 Mobile stores are comprised of LCD screens displaying the latest offers or discounts. Customers are likely to get aware following the policy while improved customer engagement can improve the sales volume in the stores.

2.5 In-store promotion and brand loyalty:

In-store promotion and brand loyalty are supposed to be closely linked with each other. Considering the perception of Raghubir (2004), brand loyalty is directly proportionate with the in-store promotion policy with an effective promotional strategy is likely to enhance brand loyalty. With the increasing significance of the in-store brand loyalty programs, developing trust and customer satisfaction are among the top most crucial factors that can improve the sales volume for the businesses while at the same time ensuring improved brand loyalty.

Developing trust through brand alignment:

In-store promotion is helpful in building trust through the brand alignment initiative. According to Park and Lennon (2009), brand alignment can be considered as the process of building trust among the target audience. Brand alignment is often considered as a core principle when it comes to the implementation of the loyalty programs. The brand alignment process generally determines the extent to which the loyalty program is aligned with the brand positioning. Dhar and Raju (2007) acknowledged that brand loyalty program is likely to increase customer satisfaction and the loyalty scenario. In cases where the brand positioning is not aligned with the promotion policies, customer satisfaction is an unlikely scenario. A recent retail store survey even promotes the fact that brand alignment programs can generate up to 3x time improved customer satisfaction compared to the scenario where the alignment is missing (Statista, 2014). The brand alignment scenario can also vary as per the business sectors and recent statistics suggest that the percentage is the lowest in the retail sector (refer to the figure below).

brands_as_per_business_sector_3_mobile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: Brand alignment as per business sector

(Source: Statista, 2014)

In reference to the above figure, the brand alignment scenario is Co-Brand Credit sector is found to be highest with 64%. As a consequence, customers are generally satisfied and loyal to the brands. On the contrary, the brand alignment index is pretty low when it comes to telecommunication and retail sector. Therefore, organisations like 3 Mobile needs to considering an effective in-store promotion procedure so that improved brand loyalty can be experienced.

Improved customer satisfaction through personalised communication procedures:

The recent advertising trend promotes the fact that leading brands are focusing on the personalisation factor when it comes to communicate with the target audience. As mentioned by Pauwels et al. (2002), organisations have a better chance of targeting the customers’ perception with a more personalised advertising approach. However, Verhoef et al. (2007) argued that obtaining the personal data from the target customers is quite a challenge which is why conducting a personalised promotion campaign is critical. Customers visiting the retail stores are reluctant to provide personal data for security purposes which questions the feasibility of the personal communication process. However, successful implementation of the personalised communication process enables organisations to satisfy the customers to further extent. As cited by Park and Lennon (2009), higher relevance of the promotional campaigns is more likely to satisfy the customers and influence impulsive buying process. A recent survey report suggests that effective in-store communication process is helpful in boosting customer satisfaction almost up to 2.5x times (refer to the figure below).

customer_satisfaction_due_relevant_communication_3_mobile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: Customer satisfaction due to relevant communication

(Source: Statista, 2014)

Findings from the above figure promotes the fact that majority of the customers account greater satisfaction index if relevant communication process is being followed by business organisations. Although several customers disagreed with the fact but since majority are convinced, in can be concluded that in-store promotional campaigns if included with personalised communication process, can help in improving customer satisfaction index.

2.6 In-store promotion and customers’ perception:

The impact of the in-store promotion policy can impose a mixed impact on the perception of the target customers. Dhar and Raju (2007) argued that based on the effectiveness of the in-store promotion policies, customers can perceive the brand values differently. An in-store promotion policy based on a personalised communication approach is likely to impact more on the customers’ perception. As per Baker et al. (2002), customers are always more influenced with an informal mode of communication that is personalised in nature. However, ineffective store promotion processes can similarly demotivated customers to purchase. H&M used to engage a floor representative once a customer visited the store. The brand assumed that better engagement of the floor representatives would provide necessary information to the customers. However, customers got frustrated as there used to be lack of freedom in roaming within the stores.

Customers generally focus on a range of aspects while visiting the retail store. Park and Lennon (2009) in the respective study, discussed that ambience, awareness and engagement are the factors that influence customers’ buying decision in a retail outlet. Past studies have showed that in-store ambience influence various psychological aspects of the customers. Customers have a tendency to visit the stores more that are better in terms of infrastructure. Adding to that, customers develop better product awareness when displayed with sufficient product information and the process influence the buying decision making. As cited by Pauwels et al. (2002), a well polished store is likely to draw the attention of the customers and thus influence store traffic. Customers perceive increasing store traffic as a determining factor behind store popularity. Accordingly, improved brand loyalty is generated and customers are influenced to purchase from the stores.

2.7 Relationship between in-store promotion and customers’ buying decision making:

The relationship between the in-store promotion process and customers’ buying decision making process is considered as direct and proportionate. According to Baker et al. (2002), based on the efficacy of the in-store promotion process, customers buying decision can be altered. Considering the fact, it can be assumed that customers’ can be influenced for impulsive purchase if right promotion mix is followed within in-store environment. The right sort of in-store communication procedure along with product display and infrastructure can influence customers’ buying decision making process. Apple has been benefitted from the effective in-store promotion policies (Dhar and Raju, 2007). The brand has experienced increased sales in the retail outlets and the customers are convinced that the attractive visual elements of the stores along with the product promotions are major reasons for impulsive buying.

Customers have specific expectations regarding in-store promotion activities from the brands. The survey conducted by PWC promotes the fact that majority customers expect firms to promote necessary information along with the concerned products so that better awareness can be created. As mentioned by Verhoef et al. (2007), customers with more awareness can be potential purchasers. 3 Mobile is following the policy of live demo to promote the mobiles and tablets. The brand is also allowing the customers to experience ‘live demo’ so that a certain degree of transparency can be maintained in the communication process.

2.8 Strategies to ensure greater brand loyalty through in-store promotion:

Considering the past literatures, in-store promotion policies can be enhanced following better promotion control process, targeting in-store customers and cross selling. Park and Lennon (2009) criticised that majority organisations fail to distinguish between a macro level promotion and a micro level promotion. Since in-store promotion process is concerned with a micro level promotion procedure, new marketing initiatives are required within the environment.

Improved control:

Since the market demand is changing at a rapid pace, it would be better for organisations to have a strong control of the in-store promotion policies. As cited by Pauwels et al. (2002), organisations managing to adapt a flexible promotion policy, is likely to obtain a competitive edge over the rivals. Therefore several leading brands in contemporary business environment are using various technological assistances in order to control the in-store promotion process. Electronic shelves and LCD displays are some of the latest technologies that enabled stores to change promotion policies within short span of time (Statista, 2014).

Targeting in-store customers:

The perception of the in-store customers and customers outside the stores might be different. Therefore, organisations might target the in-store customers and position products accordingly. As per Dhar and Raju (2007), in-store customers’ perception is needed to be addressed from a micro level perspective. Several leading stores obtain customers’ perception through feedback forms while others engage store representatives to obtain such data through conversation. Survey reports suggest that stores with frequent sales are more attractive to the customers and manage to account greater sales volume. Several organisations are using PSA device to evaluate the customer behaviour and position products accordingly. It is understood that a relevant targeting process is compatible for generating greater sales volume.

Cross selling:

Cross selling mechanism could turn out to be an effective strategy in bolstering the in-store promotion process. Park and Lennon (2009) discussed that existing resources can often be useful for cross selling and further investment might not be required. For instance, 3 Mobile promotes the mobile phones and separate promotion policies are followed for mobile accessories. If a single promotion process is followed for both products greater customer anticipation can be expected.

2.9 In-store promotion activities followed by 3 Mobile:

The 3 Mobile stores are one stop solution for mobile devices and telecommunication services. The in-store shopping environment and the promotional activities are found to be appreciated by the customers. Based on the product groups, products are demonstrated in different store segments. For instance, there are different segments for mobile phones, smartphones, tablets and network services. The segregation of products and services helps in controlling the store traffic and the technologies such as electronic shelf and LED screens promotes necessary information to the customers. The live demo service is provided to the customers in case customers are unsure of the product specifications and the involvement of the store.

2.11 Conceptual framework:

conceptual_framework_3_mobile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3: Conceptual framework

(Source: Created by author)

2.11 Summary:

Considering the past literatures, in-store promotion activities can significantly influence customers purchase decision making process. In-store promotion process can help influencing profit maximisation, customer attraction, product promotion and finally enhance the organisational brand image. Several contemporary business organisations are focusing on promotion techniques such as store ambience, loyalty cards, PSA, RFID and electronic labels in order to promote the in-store products effectively. When it comes to enhancement of the in-store promotion techniques, several proven mechanism such as cross selling, targeting in-store customers and better control of the in-store activities could be helpful.

 

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

3.0 Introduction:

Research methodology is considered as vital agenda as it provides logical and scientific guidance to the researchers for conducting the whole study. Research methodology deals with research philosophy, its design and the approach associated with it. In this study, the researcher has clearly described the approach, design and the philosophy followed by the data collection and sampling process in the later stage. Adding to that, the researcher has given priority on time segregation in order to successfully complete the whole study in a stipulated time frame.

3.1 Overview of research methodology:

Research methodology is consisted of few segments such as philosophy, design and the research approach followed by data collection, data analysis and sampling process (Miles and Huberman, 2006). As stated by Brannen (2009), choosing potential methodology is essential as the success and failure of majority researches depend on the selected methodology. In this study, the researcher has chosen positivism philosophy whereas research design is descriptive in nature. Accordingly, the researcher has chosen deductive research approach in order to justify the requirements of the study. Furthermore, primary data gathered by the researcher is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Quantitative data has been collected from existing customers and advertising personnel of 3 Mobile. On the other hand, qualitative data has been gathered by analysing the response from middle line managers of 3 Mobile by initiating face to face interview with the managers.

3.2 Research philosophy: Positivism:

Research philosophy is located at the outer most layer of the overall research structure. As stated by Aldag and Steams (2008), the first objective of the researcher would be selecting appropriate research philosophy as the perspective is based on set of practices and the shared value. However, according to past studies, research philosophy can be of three types such as epistemology, ontology and axiology. Out of these three philosophies, axiology deals with traditional values and ethical consideration, whereas ontology deals with the characteristics of the facts. On the other hand, Corner (2005) stated that epistemology deals with the nature and it can be further subdivided into three segments such as positivism, realism and interpretivism. Among these segregations, the researcher has chosen positivism philosophy while conducting the research.

3.2.1 Justification for choosing positivism philosophy:

Present study is focused on evaluating the impact of in store promotion on brand loyalty and purchase decision of the customers. In order to meet the accuracy, the researcher would be requiring real time data and facts associated with it and it can be done by utilising positivism philosophy. As cited by Sandelowski et al. (2009), positivism philosophy supports real time data and analyses all facts by means of scientific nature. However, drawing inference according to the research objectives and question is also required to complete the study and the same can be achieved by using positivism philosophy (Teddlie and Yu, 2007). As current study and associated literature consists of data analysis process, the researcher has chosen positivism philosophy in order to provide a flawless inference on the chosen topic.

3.3 Research approach: Deductive:

Research approach provides sequential path in order to make the research path smoother and easier. As cited by Bryman (2006), research approach acts as the strategic way to execute whole study. Research approach can be subdivided into two segments such as inductive and deductive research approach. Past studies have formulated that inductive research approach starts with observing things followed by evaluating past theories and literatures. However, Cameron (2009) argued that deductive research approach starts with analysing past theories and literatures and ends with data collection and data analysis process. Hence, the researcher has chosen deductive research approach in order to achieve a hassle free flow of the research.

3.3.1 Justification for choosing deductive research approach:

Present study is based on evaluating the impact of the in store promotion in maintaining brand loyalty and on the purchase decision of consumers. Several literatures and theories would be needed to cultivate for analysing the facts and real time data. Hence, the researcher has chosen deductive research approach to analyse past theories rather than developing new theories. The scope of developing new theories are found to be nominal and current study is focused majorly on nurturing past researches. As stated by Bryman (2006), deductive approach can be followed by analysing ample primary data consists of both quantitative and qualitative data. Henceforth, the researcher has chosen deductive approach to examine past theories and attaining flawless result of the study.

3.4 Research Design:

Research design helps researcher to formulate issues and problems in a systematic and scientific manner. Cameron (2009) stated that research design enables researcher to exhibit informational flow in a logical manner. Furthermore, research design is divided into three categories such as explanatory, descriptive and exploratory research design.  Explanatory research design is used when past literatures are found sufficient and detailed analysis is required by the researcher (Larsen and David, 2004). However, Gummesson (2006) argued that descriptive research design is used to evaluate different aspects of the research while conducting the research. Furthermore, Ivankova et al. (2006) stated that exploratory research design is used to explore new theories where the required information is found not sufficient to reach the accuracy. The researcher has chosen descriptive researcher has chosen descriptive research design to conduct the following research.

3.4.1 Justification for choosing descriptive research design:

Descriptive research design has been used to evaluate different aspects in store promotion and its significance in modifying brand loyalty and the purchase behaviour of the customers. According to Podsakoff and Dalton (2007), descriptive research design is useful where as intense case analysis is required to achieve the accuracy of the research. Furthermore, Freshwater (2007) mentioned that descriptive research design conducts primary data collection to justify each and every steps of the research. Current study considers gathering primary data and the analysis would be done in order to achieve real picture of the impact of in store promotions in the UK telecommunication industry. Hence, it is assumed that selection of descriptive research design could help successfully conducting the study.

3.5 Data Type:

Primary and secondary data have been collected by the researcher while conducting the research. Primary data used by the researcher to conduct the study is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Quantitative data comprises of the opinion of existing customers of 3 mobile, whereas qualitative data holds the opinion of the 5 middle line managers of the organisation.  Quantitative and qualitative data have been evaluated by gathering responses of the customers and the managers respectively. However, Johnson et al. (2007) argued that primary data alone might not become sufficient to reach the accuracy of the research and it would require secondary data analysis in order to make the research authentic and transparent. Furthermore, secondary data analysis would help researcher to gather information about the facts and events conducted in the past (Welman et al. 2005). Literatures about the in store promotional activity and the impact on the brand loyalty have been gathered by using books, journals, website of the organisations, magazines and other sources.

3.6 Data collection process:

Choosing data collection process depends on the objective of the research and the outcomes associated with it (Morgan, 2007). In this research, the researcher has preferred collecting quantitative and qualitative data for gathering primary data. On the other hand, existing in store promotional strategy of 3 Mobile has also been collected by using secondary resources. Quantitative data has been gathered from 70 customers of the organisation following a survey questionnaire approach. On the other hand, qualitative data has been gathered by initialising face to face interview with 5 middle line managers of 3 Mobile.

3.6.1 Primary data collection:

Questionnaire method:

In order to get the responses, the researcher has distributed the questionnaires among the respondents to gather opinion about the current scenario via online media. Before sending the questions, an invitation mail has been sent by the researcher and the affirmation of the respondents was taken accordingly. Only agreed respondents were taken into account and questionnaire consists of 16 questions are given to the customers of the 3 mobile in order to receive the response accordingly. Morse (2007) stated that the set of questions need to focus on the faster mode of data collection in order to save the time of the study. Although, there might be a chance of getting unanswered questions, the researcher could gain a considerable amount of data about the impact of in store promotion on the brand loyalty and buying behaviour of the customers in the UK.

Face to face interview:

5 Middle line managers of 3 mobile have been invited to attend face to face interview in order to gather qualitative data. In this process, managers were requested to share their views about present in store promotional strategy of 3 Mobile and the impact of the same on its brand loyalty and buying behaviour of the customers. The interview process was conducted taking into consideration the free consent of the participants and it was found sufficient enough to reach desired outcome of the study.

3.6.2 Secondary data collection:

Secondary data has been collected from various sources such as journals, books, websites and corporate magazines of 3 Mobile. According to Sale et al. (2005), journals could provide accurate information for conducting the overall study. Furthermore, several e journals have also been gathered by the researcher by using university online archive. On the other hand, the researcher has utilised internet and websites to accumulate necessary information about the overall telecommunication industry of the UK.

3.7 Data analysis:

Data analysis has been done by the researcher within a specific time span. Quantitative and qualitative both types of data has been analysed by the researcher. As stated by Ketchen and Bergh (2004), quantitative data analysis could provide a diversified opinion of the respondents to analyse specific domain of the responses. Quantitative response collected from the customers is represented in graphical and tabular manner. The percentage response has been drawn by utilising MS Excel and the responses have been described in the tabular and graphical way by using MS Word. However, qualitative response gathered from the managers are also described by the researcher in a descriptive manner to get detailed analysis about the existing scenario of in store promotion in 3 Mobile and its impact on maintaining brand value of the firm.

3.8 Sampling method:

Incorporating suitable sampling process is crucial as it chooses homogeneous group from bigger population of heterogeneous groups (VanderStoep and Johnson, 2009). As a matter of fact, a suitable sampling method needs to be employed to regulate the success and failure of the research. However, the researcher has chosen simple random probability sampling technique for gathering responses in an equal and distributed manner. On the other hand, non probability sampling method has been chosen by the researcher in order to gather qualitative data from the managers and the responses are explained in a descriptive manner.

3.9 Sample size:

Proper sampling could help organisation getting appropriate data for conducting the research (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2006). Several studies have identified that sample size below 35 might become unable to produce desired results from the respondents. Hence, to avoid ethical issue, the researcher has attempted to gather responses from 70 existing customers of 3 mobile. Hence, the sample size from quantitative data collection is 70. On the other hand, a response gained from 5 managers of 3 Mobile has been used as qualitative response. Hence, sample size for qualitative response is 5.

3.10 Ethical consideration:

Ethical considerations are considered as essential to ensure a transparent flow of the research study (Truscott et al. 2010). The researcher has maintained data privacy, personal information of the respondents. On the other hand, none of the respondents are forced to attend interview. Furthermore, the interview questions are made in a way which would not hurt any respondents. Finally, the researcher has ensured that collected data would not be used for nay commercial purpose and all details have been kept secret by the researcher to avoid integrity issue.

3.11 Research limitations:

Quantitative data has been gathered by engaging 70 customers of 3 mobile. Allowing more respondent would have provided more accurate result. On the other hand, qualitative data has been gathered by involving 5 middle line managers which might not be able to produce desired result of the study. Employing more managers could have provided accurate analysis of the present scenario.

 

Research Activity 1st Week 2nd

Week

3rd Week 4th Week 5th Week 6th Week
Selecting the topic            
Review of the literature            
Research Methodology            
Designing the survey instruments            
Data Collection Process        

 

 

   
Data Analysis, Discussion            
Conclusion and recommendation            

 

Table 1: Gantt chart

(Source: created by the author)

  

 

 

Chapter 4

Data analysis and findings

4.0 Introduction:

Primary data collected during the research study has been evaluated in the current chapter. At the outset, a thorough quantitative data analysis has been conducted assessing the perception of the customers of 3 Mobile. During the later section of the chapter, qualitative data has been analysed that evaluates the reviews of the managers of the organisation. The combined responses of the customers and the managers of 3 Mobile reflects the efficacy concerning the in-store promotion policies of the organisation and whether such initiatives are helping the firm improving the customer loyalty and sales.

4.1 Quantitative data analysis:

Question 1: What are the aspects do you like concerning the stores of 3 Mobile?

Table 2: Positive aspects concerning 3 Mobile stores

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Accessibility 15 70 21%
Customer service 9 70 13%
Informative nature 18 70 26%
Promotion 28 70 40%

 

Findings and analysis:

In reference to the findings from the above figure, majority of the customers (40% approximately) are agreed with the fact that various promotional initiatives of 3 Mobile stores are influencing customers to visit stores. The finding is found to be similar to that of the proposition of Dodds et al. (2011) as the author agreed that retail organisations need to focus on several innovative marketing strategies to maintain competency in the industry (refer to section 2.3 in chapter 2). 3 Mobile stores are following several effective in-store promotion policies that are drawing the attention of the customers. Apart from promotional techniques, customers also appreciate the informative nature of the stores, customer service mechanism and accessibility of the stores. As mentioned by Inman et al. (2010), contemporary business organisations need to focus on making the customers aware of the latest offerings so that the sales volume could be improved (refer to section 2.1 in chapter 2). It seems 3 Mobile stores are focusing on similar approaches by prioritising on informative store and store accessibility.

Question 2: Is store ambience a major reason behind your repeat visit in the 3 Mobile stores?

Table 3: Whether store ambience a reason for repeat visit

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 15 70 21%
Agree 37 70 53%
Neutral 6 70 9%
Disagree 7 70 10%
Strongly disagree 5 70 7%

 

Findings and analysis:

Since majority of the customers (74% approximately) of 3 Mobile appreciate the in-store ambience, it can be assumed that the brand has attempted to ensure there is effective ambience so that customers could be attracted. Considering the words of Yoo et al. (2010), a considerable number of contemporary customers prioritise in-store ambience prior to the actual purchase decision making process (refer to section 2.4 in chapter 2). Considering the current context, 3 Mobile is prioritising the in store ambience in order to draw the attention of the customers and ensure repeat visit. On the contrary, almost 17% of the customers disagreed with the fact while approximately 9% of the overall respondents were unsure. However, since majority of the customers appreciate the fact, it can be assessed the in-store ambience is a reason for repeat visit of the customers.

Question 3: Do you get the solution of queries while visiting the 3 Mobile stores?

Table 4: Getting solutions while visiting the 3 Mobile stores

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 17 70 24%
Agree 33 70 47%
Neutral 4 70 6%
Disagree 11 70 16%
Strongly disagree 5 70 7%

 

Findings and analysis:

Considering the findings from the above figure, over 71% of the customers have experience effective query processing mechanism in the stores of 3 Mobile. On the contrary, approximately 23% of the customers disagreed with the fact while remaining 6% of the respondents failed to answer precisely. Considering the majority responses, it can be assumed that effective query processing mechanism is followed in the stores of 3 Mobile. Taking into consideration the words of Naik and Kay (2009), organizations managing to follow effective query processing mechanism can expect a positive word of mouth due to transparent process (refer to section 2.1 in chapter 2). As a consequence, better store promotion could be feasible. Since 3 Mobile store are prioritizing this particular aspect, positive work of mouth could be feasible. Customers’ queries are dealt effectively and thus, a clear and transparent sales mechanism enhances the organizational brand image.

Question 4: Is the loyalty scheme provided at the 3 Mobile store a reason behind your repeat visit?

Table 5: Whether loyalty scheme a major reason behind repeat visit

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 19 70 27%
Agree 29 70 41%
Neutral 8 70 11%
Disagree 9 70 13%
Strongly disagree 5 70 7%

 

Findings and analysis:

Assessing the findings from the above figure, over 68% of the respondents are convinced that the in-store loyalty schemes are a major factor influencing repeat visit. From the above findings, it can be assessed that 3 Mobile stores are particularly prioritising a range of loyalty schemes when it comes to store promotion. As cited by Dhar and Raju (2007), the provision of loyalty cards has turned out to be an effective in-store promotion policy in the modern era (refer to section 2.4 in chapter 2). Modern day customers are found to be more influenced by various innovative loyalty schemes and it is assumed that 3 Mobile has assessed the fact and considered various loyalty schemes for enhancing the in-store promotion policies. However, there are several customers (31% overall) who either disagreed with the fact or were found to be unsure.

Question 5: Choose from the following the reason behind your repeat visit in the 3 Mobile stores.

Table 6: Reasons for repeat visit

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Reference 7 70 10%
Loyalty scheme 27 70 39%
Query processing 21 70 30%
Discounts 15 70 21%

 

Findings and analysis:

Almost 39% of the overall customers surveyed, suggested that the loyalty schemes provided at the 3 Mobile stores are the major reason behind the repeat visit while 30% of the customers repeatedly visit the 3 Mobile stores for query processing purpose. Apart from that, discounts and referrals are also major reasons that influence customers to visit the 3 Mobile stores repeatedly. It seems that the introduction of innovative loyalty schemes has helped 3 Mobile improving the customer loyalty index. Park and Lennon (2009) appreciated the loyalty card approach as it helps maintaining effective customer relations (refer to section 2.4 in chapter 2). Effective query processing is also helping 3 Mobile stores increasing customer loyalty. The brand is even following the policy of ‘live demo’ in order to convince the customers (refer to section 2.7 in chapter 2). Furthermore, added discount on products is also influencing customers purchase decision and together, these factors ensure customers trust on the brand.

Question 6: Have you been influenced by the promotional offers provided by the 3 Mobile stores?

Table 7: Whether being influenced by the in-store promotional offers

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 13 70 19%
Agree 34 70 49%
Neutral 6 70 9%
Disagree 12 70 17%
Strongly disagree 5 70 7%

 

Findings and analysis:

In reference to the above figure, majority of the customers (67%) of 3 Mobile stores are influenced by the in-store promotion policies followed by the brand. On the contrary, overall 24% of the employees disagreed with the fact while remaining 9% failed to provide proper responses. Considering the fact, it can be assumed that the in-store promotion strategies followed by 3 Mobile stores have turned out to be an effective approach as it has managed to influence the target customers either to visit stores on numerous occasions or to influence the purchase decision making process. In this context, Dhar and Raju (2007) acknowledged that based on the efficacy of the in-store promotion activities, customers could be influenced (refer to section 2.6 in chapter 2). Similar situation has been experienced in the context of 3 Mobile stores as the customers are found to be influenced due to the in-store promotion policies.

Question 7: Would you agree that the advertising by means of electronic label make you more aware of the latest offerings from 3 Mobile?

Table 8: Greater awareness due to electronic label advertising

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 13 70 19%
Agree 29 70 41%
Neutral 5 70 7%
Disagree 16 70 23%
Strongly disagree 7 70 10%

 

Findings and analysis:

Majority of the customers (60% approximately) have become more aware of the latest offerings in 3 Mobile stores due to the electronic label advertisement. However, 7% of the customers were found to be neutral while 33% of the customers provided negative responses. Since majority of the customers are convinced it can be concluded that the initiative of electronic label advertisement is a successful promotion strategy that is allowing 3 Mobile stores to create greater awareness among the target customers. Inman et al. (2010) emphasised that contemporary organisations needed to create better awareness among the target customers in order to enhance brand popularity (refer to section 2.1 in chapter 2). Considering the above findings, it seems 3 Mobile has been successful in this context as majority of customers have become more aware thanks to the electronic label advertising strategy.

Question 8: Do you appreciate the emergence of newer technologies such as PSA/RFID in the 3 Mobile stores?

Table 9: Appreciation regarding newer technologies such as PSA/RFID

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 21 70 30%
Agree 23 70 33%
Neutral 2 70 3%
Disagree 14 70 20%
Strongly disagree 10 70 14%

 

Findings and analysis:

Taking into consideration the findings from the above figure, almost 63% of the overall respondents appreciate the newer technological services such as PSA/RFID in the stores of 3 Mobile. Perhaps the technological advancement is helping 3 Mobile stores to enhance the overall customer service mechanism. Technology such as PSA (Personal Shopping Assistance) helps customers choosing appropriate products assessing the customers’ preference while RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) helps prompt processing of payment mechanism in the cash counter (refer to section 2.4 in chapter 2). As a consequence, customers at the 3 Mobile stores are successfully choosing preferred products using the PSA devices while the cashiers at the cash counters are managing to reduce the traffic using the RFID devices. The strategies are ultimately making the customers more satisfied and accordingly increased loyalty could be could be experienced.

Question 9: Have you been influenced to buy products seeing the promotional offers at the 3 Mobile Stores?

Table 10: Alteration in buying decision due to promotional offers

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 9 70 13%
Agree 42 70 60%
Neutral 2 70 3%
Disagree 9 70 13%
Strongly disagree 8 70 11%

 

Findings and analysis:

Considering the findings from the above figure, more than 73% of the respondents are found to be influenced by the in-store promotional offers in the 3 Mobile stores. It is a well known fact that, retail organisations are prioritising various promotion policies in order to influence customers’ buying decision making process. As mentioned by Kopalle et al. (2009), in-store promotion policies can attract customers and even influence the customers’ purchase decision (refer to section 2.3 in chapter 2). On the contrary, there are several customers (27% approximately) who are not particularly influenced by the in-store promotion policies of 3 Mobile. However, since majority of the customers have agreed with the fact, it can be concluded that various promotional offers are influencing customers at the 3 Mobile stores and accordingly, customers are altering the purchase decision making process.

Question 10: Do you frequently redeem points to get additional offers and benefits at the 3 Mobile stores?

Table 11: Redemption of loyalty points frequently

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 8 70 11%
Agree 21 70 33%
Neutral 0 70 0%
Disagree 23 70 33%
Strongly disagree 16 70 23%

 

Findings and analysis:

The above findings promote an interesting result as a mixed output has been achieved. Approximately, 44% of the employees have redeemed loyalty points while 56% of the employees have not redeemed loyalty points at the 3 Mobile stores. Therefore, it can be said that 3 Mobile needs to focus more on enhancing the loyalty schemes as it has not helped improving sales volume significantly. Perhaps the accessibility of the loyalty points is an issue as customers are only allowed to redeem points only at certain scenarios and for certain products. As stated by Pauwels et al. (2002), the provisions of loyalty cards are restricted within specific time and place and therefore, the efficacy can be an issue (refer to section 2.4 in chapter 2). Adding to that, a considerable number of customers (56% approximately) do not generally prefer redeeming the loyalty points frequently. It can be a concern for 3 Mobile and the brand needs to focus on some improved strategies for solving the issue.

Question 11: Have you ever been convinced to buy products after communicating the merits and demerits with the store representatives?

Table 12: Whether convinced to buy products after communicating with store representatives

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 11 70 16%
Agree 35 70 50%
Neutral 3 70 4%
Disagree 12 70 17%
Strongly disagree 9 70 13%

 

Findings and analysis:

In reference to the above figure, over 66% of the customers are found to be convinced with the product purchase decision after communicating the features with the store representatives. On the contrary, approximately 30% of the customers disagreed with the fact while 4% failed to provide precise information. It seems 3 Mobile is particularly focusing on the communication strategy with the customers and that store representatives are trained effectively to communicate with the end users. As a result, customers are able to clarify any queries regarding specific products and opt for product purchasing. Considering the proposition of Pauwels et al. (2002), sales volume is likely to increase if brands manage to address the customers’ perception with a more personalized approach (refer to section 2.5 in chapter 2). Following a more personalised approach towards the customers is helping 3 Mobile convincing the customers to purchase products.

Question 12: Does the ‘live demo’ policy followed at the 3 Mobile store convince you to buy preferred products?

Table 13: Buying products after ‘live demo’

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 17 70 24%
Agree 23 70 33%
Neutral 7 70 10%
Disagree 15 70 21%
Strongly disagree 8 70 11%

 

Findings and analysis:

Considering the findings from the above diagram, majority of the respondents (57% approximately) agreed that the buying decision has been altered after experiencing the ‘live demo’. On the contrary, 32% of the employees disagreed with the fact while remaining 10% were neutral in this context. The ‘live demo’ provision has turned out to be a productive initiative by 3 Mobile. Following the policy, the brand is demonstrating the product features prior to the actual purchase so that the customers could be well convinced with the product specifications. Considering the proposition of Park and Lennon (2009), the significance of brand alignment is needed to be prioritised by the retail organisations in the modern era so that the brand trust could be integrated within the customers (refer to section 2.5 in chapter 2). Likewise, 3 Mobile is managing to increase brand trust among the target customers following the ‘live demo’ policy which is ultimately influencing the customers’ purchase decision making process.

Question 13: Would you be tempted to visit the 3 Mobile stores more if the provision of discount on repeat visit is applied?

Table 14: Motivation due to the provision of discount on repeat visit

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 16 70 23%
Agree 33 70 47%
Neutral 6 70 9%
Disagree 9 70 13%
Strongly disagree 6 70 9%

 

Findings and analysis:

Findings from the above figure highlight the fact that majority of the customers (73% approximately) would like to visit the 3 Mobile stores more if there is a discount provision on the repeat store visit activity. On the contrary, 22% of the customers contradicted and 9% were found to be neutral in this context. The provision of discount on repeat visit is an innovative approach and relatively uncommon in retail business environment. However, considering the responses of the customers, such promotion policies could be effective initiatives to bolster the store traffic and sales generation process. Similar fact has been discussed by Dhar and Raju (2007) as the author emphasised that customers could perceive the brand values differently based on the in-store promotion policies (refer to section 2.6 in chapter 2). Thus this type of promotion policies could help the brand experiencing greater in-store traffic and improved sales generation process.

Question 14: Do you agree with the fact that 3 Mobile could target the perception of in-store customers so that better sales can be generated?

Table 15: Targeting in-store customers’ perception for generating better sales

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 19 70 27%
Agree 27 70 39%
Neutral 6 70 9%
Disagree 11 70 16%
Strongly disagree 7 70 10%

 

 

Findings and analysis:

Majority of the customers of 3 Mobile (66% approximately) are agreed with the fact that targeting the perception of in-store customers could help the brand generating better sales. Therefore, 3 Mobile could opt for a new targeting strategy when it comes to in-store promotion policy and address the perception of in-store customers. Similarly Dhar and Raju (2007) acknowledged that when it comes to in-store marketing initiative, brands need to adopt a micro level perspective (refer to section 2.8 in chapter 2). By this way, targeting the in-store customers’ perception could help determining the respective demands and accordingly 3 Mobile could expect greater loyalty from the customers.

Question 15: Would you be tempted more to purchase from 3 Mobile store if product price is reduced compared to the online stores?

Table 16: Whether price drop compared to the online store could influence customers’ purchase decision

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 11 70 16%
Agree 36 70 51%
Neutral 4 70 6%
Disagree 14 70 20%
Strongly disagree 5 70 7%

 

Findings and analysis:

Overall 67% of the customers are willing to purchase more from the 3 Mobile stores if the product price is dropped from that in online store. Contradictorily, 27% of the customers were not convinced with the fact. However, considering the responses of majority of the participants, price drop in physical retail environment could help 3 Mobile influencing customers’ purchase decision making process. Pauwels et al. (2002) complement the strategy by discussing that a flexible store promotion policy is needed to be prioritized by the retail brands to ensure competency (refer to section 2.8 in chapter 2). Since majority of the contemporary customers like to purchase products online, it would require some innovative approach for 3 Mobile to encouraged customers to visit the retail stores. In this context, added benefits in retail environment such as price drop could be useful.

Question 16: Are you convinced that controlling the store traffic could help 3 Mobile attracting more customers?

Table 17: Whether controlling store traffic could attract more customers

Options Frequency Total response Percentage response (%)
Strongly agree 17 70 24%
Agree 29 70 41%
Neutral 8 70 11%
Disagree 9 70 13%
Strongly disagree 7 70 10%

 

Findings and analysis:

It is assumed that controlling store traffic could be an effective approach in attracting more customers as majority of the respondents (65%) are convinced with the fact. However, the efficacy concerning the strategy could be questionable as almost 23% disagreed with the fact and 11% of the respondents were unsure. However, the majority responses are going to be considered in this context and therefore, it is assumed that store traffic controlling could be useful in customer attraction. Naik and Kay (2009) discussed that customers can be frustrated if being avoided in the retail stores and accordingly, the brand image can be negatively perceived (refer to section 2.4 in chapter 2). Store traffic is a similar factor on the basis of which, customers’ perception regarding the brand image of 3 Mobile can be influenced. Therefore, a proper store traffic controlling mechanism can be followed in stores so that better loyalty can be expected.

4.2 Qualitative data analysis:

  1. What are the in-store promotion policies followed currently at the 3 Mobile stores?

The managers of 3 Mobile stores have highlighted a range of in-store promotion policies that are currently followed by the brand. One of the managers has acknowledged that 3 Mobile is introducing product promotion through LCD screens in the stores in order to draw the attention of the customers. Other two managers have reflected on the loyalty cards that are provided to the customers at the point of sale. New customers are provided loyalty points with each purchase while existing customers are encouraged to redeem loyalty points during future purchase. Park and Lennon (2009) acknowledged that payback points are preferred among the customers as it ensures discounts or offers during future purchase (refer to section 2.4 in chapter 2). Apart from that, one of the managers discussed about the shopping assistance that are provided to the customers while another manger pointed the cross selling mechanism that is followed in 3 Mobile stores. By cross selling, the manager promoted the concept of a common promotion procedure for different products. As depicted by Park and Lennon (2009), cross selling mechanism encourages brands to utilise resources and mitigate overall incurred cost (refer to section 2.8 in chapter 2).

  1. What kind of impact do you think the current in-store promotion policies have imposed on the brand loyalty concerning 3 Mobile?

While asking the managers of 3 Mobile regarding the possible impact of in-store promotion policies, almost all the managers agreed that in-store promotion activities could significantly impact on the brand loyalty scenario. One of the managers acknowledged that current crop of customers have developed improved trust thanks to the new and more effective in-store promotion activities. Similar response has been provided by another manager as the manager discussed that 3 Mobile is currently attempting to align the promotional activities with the customers perception. Similar fact has been highlighted by Park and Lennon (2009) as the author emphasised that brand alignment could influence customers to develop increased brand trust (refer to section 2.5 in chapter 2). On the other hand, two of the managers highlighted the personalised communication process as a significant factor as it has helped the 3 Mobile stores to generate better customer satisfaction. Finally, a manager also pointed out the increased number of traffic in the 3 Mobile stores and the reason is considered to be the improved customer loyalty that has been feasible due to effective in-store promotion policies.

  1. Are you convinced with the efficacy of the current in-store promotion policies? If so, then why?

All five store managers were found to be convinced that the current in-store promotion policies have generated several positive results particularly when it comes to improved brand loyalty generation and customer satisfaction. It is understood that the chosen in-store promotion policies have attempted to address customers’ perception and accordingly, the brand has been successful in this context as two of the managers responded accordingly. Considering the words of Dhar and Raju (2007), in-store promotion could influence customers to perceive brand image differently and considering responses of the customers, 3 Mobile has managed to promote a positive brand image on the mindset of the customers. Adding to that, two other managers discussed that the adopted in-store promotion policies have influenced customers’ buying decision making process. Similarly Baker et al. (2002) cited that, an effective in-store promotion policy could influence customers to alter the purchase decision (refer to section 2.7 in chapter 2). Finally, another manager pointed that the 3 Mobile store has recently experienced improved word of mouth mechanism among the customers and the adopted in-store promotion policy is supposed to be a significant factor behind that.

  1. How do the current in-store promotion policies of 3 Mobile influencing the customers’ buying decision making process?

Considering the responses of the managers, almost all the managers were convinced that the in-store promotion policies followed by the brand have influenced customers to purchase more from the 3 Mobile stores. According to two of the managers, the in-store promotion polices have enabled the target customers to be more aware of the offerings of the brand and the awareness is likely to influence the buying decision making process of the customers. As cited by Verhoef et al. (2007), customers are likely to alter purchase decision if being aware of the latest brand offerings (refer to section 2.7 in chapter 2). Another manager has emphasised that the following the policy of ‘live demo’ has helped the brand significantly in convincing the customers buying products at the stores. Verhoef et al. (2007) completed the concept of ‘live demo’ by acknowledging that customers develop improved brand trust and convince about the merits and demerits of the product specifications and finally take the purchase decision (refer to section 2.7 in chapter 2). The remaining respondents focused on the loyalty schemes that are supposed to influence customers to purchase from the 3 Mobile stores.

  1. What can 3 Mobile opt for to ensure improved brand loyalty and sales volume?

Majority of the managers are agreed with the fact that customers’ perception is needed to be analysed through feedback evaluation so that relevant in-store promotion policies could be followed and brand loyalty could be improved. In this context, one of the managers proposed a feedback evaluation strategy that could be held at the point of sale. Another manager complemented the option of feedback evaluation process by acknowledging that assessing the perception of the customers regarding the offerings, could help the brand keeping track of the customers so that brand promotion strategies could be taken accordingly. Park and Lennon (2009) agreed with the fact by focusing that when it comes to in-store promotion, brands need to prioritise a micro level strategy (refer to section 2.8 in chapter 2). Two other managers focused on enhancement of the loyalty schemes so that better sales can be generated. On the other hand, one of the managers believe maintaining an effective relation with the customers could help improving loyalty and as a result, effective sales volume could be generated. In this context, the manager has focused on cross selling mechanism so that improved sales volume could be expected.

 

 

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendations

5.0 Introduction:

Findings and analysis from the previous chapters have been summarised and evaluated in the current chapter. The chapter attempts to link the research findings with that of the research objectives. Each of the research objectives has been evaluated separately and accordingly attempts have been made to judge whether the research findings have managed to address the research objectives. Finally, considering the findings from the research study, a range of recommendations have been proposed for 3 Mobile stores so that the brand can improve the current level of in-store promotion process to enhance brand loyalty can sales generation. The chapter ends with highlighting the research limitations and the future scope for the study.

5.1 Linking the research objectives with research findings:

Objective 1: To evaluate the in-store promotion procedures followed by 3 Mobile

Findings from question 1, question 2, question 3 and question 4 (section 4.1, chapter 4) and results from question 1 (section 4.2, chapter 4) reflect on the in-store promotion policies that have been followed by 3 Mobiles. Findings from question 1 (section 4.1 chapter 4) promote the fact that 3 Mobile stores are focusing on accessibility, customer service, information and promotion when it comes to in-store promotion policies. Dodds et al. (2011) complemented the process by acknowledging that an innovative marketing initiative is likely to enhance industry competency (refer to section 2.3, chapter 2). Findings from question 2 (section 4.1, chapter 4) highlight that 3 Mobile is prioritising store ambience so that in-store promotion process could be bolstered.  Adding to that, the solutions obtained from question 3 (section 4.1, chapter 4) pointed that the 3 Mobile stores are particularly emphasising the query processing mechanism so that improved trust can be experienced from the customers. Finally assessing the findings from question 4 (section 4.1, chapter 4), several loyalty schemes are offered to the customers of 3 Mobiles in the stores of 3 Mobiles. On top of that, findings from question 1 (section 4.2 in chapter 4), the managers also focused on various loyalty schemes that are provided at the 3 Mobile stores. As discussed by Park and Lennon (2009), customers are often influenced by various loyalty schemes such as loyalty cards as it ensures discounts or added offers during future purchase (refer to section 2.4 in chapter 2). Therefore, summarising the findings, 3 Mobile is focusing on in-store promotion policies such as store ambience, query processing and particularly focusing on a range of loyalty schemes.

Objective 2: To determine the impact of in-store promotion process on the brand loyalty concerning 3 Mobile

When it comes to the impact of in-store promotion policies followed by 3 Mobile stores, findings from question 4, question 5, question 6, question 7 (refer to section 4.1 in chapter 4) and question 2 (refer to section 4.2 in chapter 4) can be considered. Taking into consideration the findings from question 5 (section 4.1, chapter 4), in-store promotion policies such as reference, loyalty schemes, query processing and discounts are crucial as the approaches have helped 3 Mobile experiencing repeat visit of the customers. In reference to the findings from question 6 (section 4.1, chapter 4) the customers are significantly influenced by the in-store promotional offers and the fact is found to be similar to the proposition of Dhar and Raju (2007) as the author cited that customers are likely to alter buying decision based on the efficacy of the in-store promotion (refer to section 2.6 in chapter 2). 3 Mobile stores are also focusing on the electronic level advertisement to promote the latest offerings (refer to findings from question 7, section 4.1 in chapter 4). Adding to that, findings from question 8 promote the fact that 3 Mobile has focused on various technological advancements lilke the PSA or the RFID introductions within the stores that could help customers experiencing less complexities in stores when it comes to shopping or payment mechanism. Similar responses had been obtained from the managers of the 3 Mobile stores as findings from question 2 (section 4.2, chapter 4) suggest that the brand has experienced improved brand trust while the personalised communication process has helped in experiencing greater sales in the 3 Mobile stores. According to Park and Lennon (2009), proper brand alignment could influence organisations to address the perception of the customers. That has been case in this context as 3 Mobile has experienced several positive impacts of the in-store promotion policies.

Objective 3: To analyse whether in-store promotion activities followed by 3 Mobile are influencing the buying decisions of the customers

In order to address this particular research objective, findings from question 9, question 10, question 11 and question 12 (refer to section 4.1 in chapter 4) can be evaluated. In reference to the findings from question 9, customers are convinced with the fact that in-store promotion policies have influenced to alter the buying decision making process. According to Kopalle et al. (2009), in-store promotion policies could attract and retain customers while at the same time, influence customers’ purchase decisions (refer to section 2.3 in chapter 2). However, customers are not that enthusiastic in redeeming the loyalty points frequently which is a concern for the organisation (refer to findings from question 10 in chapter 4). When it comes to convincing the customers, the personalised communication approach followed by store representatives is found to be effective in convincing the customers (refer to findings from question 11). As mentioned by Pauwels et al. (2002), a personalised communication approach is compatible for addressing the perception of the customers and likely to convince the customers to purchase (refer to section 2.5 in chapter 2). Finally, findings from question 12 highlight that the customers are well convinced with the ‘live demo’ approach adopted by the brand and it is influencing the purchase decisions as well. The managers are also agreed with the fact that the current in-store promotion policies are effective enough as the process has helped improving the brand loyalty scenario (refer to findings from question 3, section 4.1 in chapter 4). Adding to that, the managers are also agreed with the fact that the current in-store promotion policies have created better awareness among the customers and convinced the customers regarding brand trust (refer to question 4 in section 4.2, chapter 4). As a result, improved brand loyalty has been experienced.

Objective 4: To recommend strategies to 3 Mobile regarding in-store promotions so that improved brand loyalty and sales volume can be experienced

Findings from question 13, question 14, question 15 and question 16 in section 4.1, chapter 4, reveal several strategic options for 3 Mobile so that the brand can improve brand loyalty and sales volume. Adding to that, findings from question 5 in chapter 4, highlight the perception of the managers regarding improving the brand loyalty and sales volume. In reference to the findings from question 13 (section 4.1 in chapter 4), customers are likely to visit the stores repeatedly if there is a provision of discount on repeat visit. Dhar and Raju (2007) supported the fact by acknowledging that customers generally perceive brand values differently based on the in-store promotion process (refer to section 2.6 in chapter 2). Findings from question 14 promote the fact that targeting the perception of the in-store customers would be a viable option for 3 Mobile at least the surveyed customers believe so. 3 Mobile could also consider price drop policy as an in-store promotion process as it could influence customers to visit the stores more (refer to findings from question 15 in chapter 4). Similarly, Pauwels et al. (2002) cited that a flexible in-store promotion policy could enhance the market competency of the concerned brands (refer to section 4.1 in chapter 4). On the other hand, 3 Mobile could focus on store traffic controlling as majority of the customers believe the store traffic controlling mechanism could be improved in order to improve customer satisfaction index (refer to section 4.1 in chapter 4). Finally, considering the perception of the managers, evaluating the feedback of the managers, enhancement of the existing brand loyalty schemes and focusing on the cross selling mechanism are some of the strategies that 3 Mobile could emphasis on to improve brand loyalty and sales volume.

5.2 Recommendations:

Customers’ feedback evaluation at the point of sale:

Considering the feedback of the customers as well as the store managers of 3 Mobile, the brand can opt for a feedback evaluation mechanism at the point of sale. The brand can initiate the process by engaging representatives at the cash counters and after the billing process is over, the customers could be asked to place opinions regarding shopping experience. The process could help 3 Mobile assessing the efficacy concerning the current in-store promotion policies and at the same time evaluating the perception of the customers. As a consequence, the brand can initiate more relevant in-store promotion policies.

Greater accessibility of the loyalty points:

A considerable number of customers of 3 Mobile brands were found to be not that enthusiast in redeeming the loyalty points. Perhaps the reason behind that might be the accessibility issues. 3 Mobile customers are only allowed to redeem points from the 3 Mobile outlets. Therefore, the brand is recommended to improve the accessibility of the loyalty points so that the customers could redeem the points from a variety of sources. For instance, the brand can encourage the customers to redeem points in supermarkets while purchasing products of a different brand. Such a policy could help 3 Mobile improving brand loyalty and sales.

Cross selling within store:

A proper cross selling mechanism within the 3 Mobile stores could be an effective option for the brand in improving the efficacy of the in-store promotion policies. Following the cross selling mechanism, 3 Mobile is encouraged to consider a unified in-store promotion policy for a number of products. For instance, instead of following different promotion policies for mobile phones and mobile accessories, the brand could focus on a single promotion policy for promoting both products. The approach is not only effective for resource utilisation but also for increasing customer awareness as well.

5.3 Future scope:

Findings from the study could help future researchers conducting further researches in similar domain. 3 Mobile can assess the efficacy concerning the current in-store promotion policies evaluating the findings from the study. Finally, the study can help contemporary business organisations assessing the significance of in-store promotion policies.

Chapter 6

Personal development

One of the biggest positives I have experienced during the research study was an exposure practical scenario. During the academic years, I have learnt several aspects of marketing and promotion and how these factors could influence brand loyalty and sales volume. I also developed knowledge regarding several marketing management strategies that business organisations follow during in-store promotion. However, I was not aware of the practical scenario. I was unaware of the fact that there is bound to be a gap between the theories and applications. Thankfully, the research study has helped me assessing both the aspect and now, I can relate the theories and literatures with real life applications.

Until the conduction of the research study, I was only exposed to secondary research. Thus, I always needed to rely on the secondary data to come to a conclusion. However, I have conducted primary research comprising of quantitative data and qualitative data and thus evaluated first hand data to evaluate various real life scenarios. I found that relying only on secondary data to comment on the in-store promotion policies of 3 Mobile could be critical. Therefore, I started focusing on a range of primary data and thus a combination of primary and secondary data helped me generating accurate research findings. Although it is the first time I have conducted primary research, I managed pretty well and now I understand that a blend of primary and secondary data is the optimum strategy to evaluate any scenario.

The conduction of primary research has helped me improving my communication and interpretation skill as well. During conducting the survey questionnaire approach, I needed to convince the customers of 3 Mobile regarding the privacy and the store managers regarding confidentiality of the responses. I needed to follow several ethical considerations to ensure the primary research is conducted with the free consent of the respondents. Although it was critical convincing the respondents to participate in the primary research, an ethically sound primary research approach helped me in convincing the respondents. I assume I have managed to enhance my communication skills and the interpretation skills as well which is likely to contribute positively throughout my career.

I would also like to highlight the project management skills that I have managed to develop during the course of the research. Completing the research study within the allocated time was a stiff challenge for me. However, I was determined in this context and tried to follow a systematic process so that I could complete the research study module wise. I understood that following a step wise approach is effective in developing a research study. Therefore, I set research objectives first, followed by literature review, method determination and finally data analysis. I needed to allocate specific time for each of the research operations. Therefore I established a Gantt chart through which, I managed to develop a time horizon. Thus, I have managed to enhance my project management skill that has ultimately helped me in completing the research.

 

 

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Appendix:

Exhibit 1: Survey questionnaire for the customers of 3 Mobile

Name:

Age:

Sex:

Question 1: What are the aspects do you like concerning the stores of 3 Mobile?

  • Accessibility
  • Customer service
  • Informative nature
  • Promotion

Question 2: Is store ambience a major reason behind your repeat visit in the 3 Mobile stores?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 3: Do you get the solution of queries while visiting the 3 Mobile stores?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 4: Is the loyalty scheme provided at the 3 Mobile store a reason behind your repeat visit?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 5: Choose from the following the reason behind your repeat visit in the 3 Mobile stores.

  • Reference
  • Loyalty scheme
  • Query processing
  • Discounts

Question 6: Have you been influenced by the promotional offers provided by the 3 Mobile stores?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 7: Would you agree that the advertising by means of electronic label make you more aware of the latest offerings from 3 Mobile?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 8: Do you appreciate the emergence of newer technologies such as PSA/RFID in the 3 Mobile stores?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 9: Have you been influenced to buy products seeing the promotional offers at the 3 Mobile Stores?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 10: Do you frequently redeem points to get additional offers and benefits at the 3 Mobile stores?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 11: Have you ever been convinced to buy products after communicating the merits and demerits with the store representatives?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 12: Does the ‘live demo’ policy followed at the 3 Mobile store convince you to buy preferred products?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 13: Would you be tempted to visit the 3 Mobile stores more if the provision of discount on repeat visit is applied?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 14: Do you agree with the fact that 3 Mobile could target the perception of in-store customers so that better sales can be generated?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 15: Would you be tempted more to purchase from 3 Mobile store if product price is reduced compared to the online stores?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Question 16: Are you convinced that controlling the store traffic could help 3 Mobile stores attract more customers?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

 

 

Exhibit 2: Interview questions for the managers of 3 Mobile

  1. What are the in-store promotion policies followed currently at the 3 Mobile stores?
  2. What kind of impact do you think the current in-store promotion policies have imposed on the brand loyalty concerning 3 Mobile?
  3. Are you convinced with the efficacy of the current in-store promotion policies? If so, then why?
  4. How do the current in-store promotion policies of 3 Mobile influencing the customers’ buying decision making process?
  5. What can 3 Mobile opt for to ensure improved brand loyalty and sales volume?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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