Impact of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behaviour: A Case Study of ASDA

Abstract:

The entire dissertation has been subdivided into five chapters each bearing equal significance in completing the study. The introductory chapter have briefed the aim, objectives and research questions. A brief background of the study have been discussed wherein it has been stated that customers base their loyalty and purchase decisions on the current market image of the firm. Although several other factors also interplay in the decision making process of the customers, yet customers tend to relate brand image with the availability of quality goods and services thus feel motivated to experience the same. Rationale is also a part of the current chapter. In the literature review, past studies have been discussed. Cultural, social and psychological are few of the factors that influences buying behaviour. Brand image positively influences buying and loyalty behaviour.  Although ASDA strives to build its brand image via slogan or sell of quality co-branded goods, authors have criticised it by stating that significant focus should be on sale of own branded goods and should involve in communication via social media.

In the methodology, the researcher has opted for positivism research philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive design. Data have been collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source of data collection includes: 5 managers and 60 customers of ASDA. The responses have been illustrated via tables and graphs in the fourth chapter: findings and analysis. Customers make their decisions based on the brand image and also prefer to remain loyal to ASDA if it advances its branding policies. In the concluding chapter, objective linking have been done. It can be concluded that ASDA have not been immensely successful in influencing the behaviour of its target mass thus recommending the need for R&D activities and use of social media for product promotion and brand image building.


 

Acknowledgment:

There are several individuals whom I need to thank to help me in successfully completing the study. Firstly, thanks to my guide ———– who have provided me with some very useful and significant project related details. The information thus attained assisted me in completing my secondary research and thereby deriving conclusion on the subject.   I would then like to pay my kind regards to the primary respondents who were quite willing to respond to the questions. The responses of the managers and the customers were of immense help in completing the study.  Thanks to my friends as well who volunteered to gather secondary data for the present study.  I would not have been able to complete the study within the time frame without the help of my friends. Finally, my parents were even a great source of inspiration during the entire project tenure. They motivated me in effectively undertaking all activities of the project.

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.0 Background of the study:

The contemporary customers have become increasingly concerned regards their status and prefer to use branded products to show off their status symbol. Hill and Hillier (2007) determined that brand is deemed as implied devise the assists businesses in attracting people and thus enjoy competitive market edge. In normal setting, brand image can be considered to be valuable asset for any business that influences the buying behaviour of the customers by positively influencing their mindset such that they feel motivated to experience the brand. As customers mostly rely on branded products, they prefer to buy products that have a well known brand name in the market. Thus, Mitchell (2004) responded that marketing policies are valuable polices and tools that assist in development of brand image. If the brand is managed in an effective ways, a business can enjoy maximum number of customers and can build long term profitable relations with the customers.  On the contrary, if the product is of low quality, the customer’s behaviour towards the brand image is automatically decreased, thus being able to attract considerably low customer base.

Within the contemporary market setting, business war is not solely on price but also on customer attraction, loyalty and building relations. Companies are so concerned with customer attraction and satisfaction that they are deploying several policies to improve its brand image. The UK retail sector employs 10% of the total workforce and accounts for 5% of the value generated by the UK economy each year (Gov.uk, 2014).  The revenue earned from product and service offerings have recently contributed around £18 billion taxes to UK.  Considering the robust market sales that is experienced by the retailers, the competition have increased thus signifying the necessity for having an effective brand image.  Market reports have stated that UK retail accounts for 12% of global retail sales making it the highest spend per head of any country.  The contribution of strategic advert policies in developing brand image and promoting products and services is considered to be immense  thereby assisting the retail marketers to benefit from robust sale process.

However, several practitioners in the past have pin pointed that customers develop a perception based on other independent variables. Besides brand image, price and reputation is also an influential factor that influences the purchase decision making (Solomon, 2006). However, brand image tops the priority list whereby customers tend to prioritize products and services based on the brand name/image.  A positive brand image is thus an influential factor to effectively promote its products and services and ensure that the target mass can easily relate themselves with the current offerings. Therefore, in the modern era, business organizations are supposed to alter, focus and strengthen brand image so that the positive values could be promoted and enhanced and competitive advantage could be attained in the retail sector industry.

1.1 Company Background:

ASDA is among the leading supermarket chain of UK that retails in food, clothing, general merchandise, toys and financial services. The company even has a mobile phone network titled as ASDA mobile.  However, in 1999 the brand became a subsidiary of American retail company Walmart (Your ASDA, 2014). Based on its effective but limited branding policies, the company had attained the position of being UK’s third largest chain by market share. However, in 2003 the company have become the second largest food retailer in UK that widened its product offerings to include: music, videos and books as well. The company almost has 259 stores, each averaging 42,000 square feet with some of all acquired range as 100,000 square feet.  Wilson and Blumenthal (2008) determined that after being acquired by Walmart, the company had added pharmacies, opticians, jewellery and photo section to its stores. The brand aims to make available all the possible requirements of the customers under a single roof.

ASDA strives to depict itself as a leader in UK’s retail sector offering the customers the products that they want and at lowest prices and continue to widen the price gap between the competitors (Ltd., A., 2014). The brand is committed to keep the prices low, which its customers value and recognize. However, Vargo (2009) reflected that the branding policy of ASDA is usually based on solely the price. It usually promotes itself under the slogan: Britain’s Lowest Priced Supermarkets, 16 Years Running. Only recently ASDA have promoted other messages such as: Chosen by You, Extra Special and Good For You to attract customers. Very recently, the brand image of ASDA received a set back as its “Smartpiece Still Water” failed to pass the customer loyalty check. The current research will delve deeper into the effectiveness of current branding policies of ASDA.

1.2 Rationale behind study:

As the retail industry can presently be considered to be one of dominant industries compared to other industries of the world, it is reason behind brand consciousness among subscribers and potential buyers. Researches show that several factors play a crucial role in developing brand awareness. Although brand image is not the only factor that determines purchase decision making, the same plays a significant role in motivating the current and potential buyers in experiencing the brand. In the contemporary environment, the only constant is change thus the retailers have to develop policies in order to ensure long term business sustainability.

Presently businesses are striving towards retaining the customers and are constantly developing better ways to capture a positive mindset which will influence their brand choice and reduce turnover rate. This research will help to identify the possible ways by which brand image can be improved such that the purchase decision making is influenced to the optimum possible extent.  Also, as it might be difficult for ASDA to be the first preference of the retail customers of UK (due to the presence of competitors) the current study is significant for the fact of evaluating is present branding policies and recommend other strategic options. Doing so will help ASDA to have a positive influence on the purchase decisions of its target mass and set a benchmark for other retailers regards an ideal brand image.

1.3 Research Aim and Objectives

Research Aim:

The aim of the research is to evaluate the impact of the organization’s brand image on the buying behaviour of the consumer particularly focusing on the retail industry of UK. General findings and conclusions will be derived concerning how consumer buying behaviour gets influenced and affected by the brand image in the retail sector. Special consideration will be given to the branding policies of ASDA in order to judge its influence on the purchase decision making of its target mass.

Research Objectives:

The following are the research objectives of the present study:

  • To assess the necessity of brand image on the buying behaviour of ASDA’s customers.
  • To identify whether the current brand image of ASDA promotes sufficient values to promote customers’ loyalty.
  • To derive strategic options that could assist ASDA in improving its brand image and enhance customers’ loyalty.

1.4 Research Questions:

The undernoted questions are derived from the research objectives:

  • How significant is the current brand image of ASDA aimed at influencing the buying behaviour of its customers?
  • Does ASDA’s brand image promote sufficient values to improve customer loyalty?
  • What are the best practise options that could assist ASDA in improving its brand image and enhance customer’s loyalty?

1.5 Scope of the study

Branding policy and brand image is a crucial determinant factor to influence the buying behaviour of the customers. It will boost the company’s sale, financial performance and market by attracting the customers to experience the brand. However, the choice of specific branding policy is significant as several retailers are focussing their policies towards influencing the buying intentions of the retail customers of UK. ASDA is facing stiff competition from several iconic retail giants such as M&S and Tesco. Thus, the research is crucial for the success of ASDA due to the fact that brand image and branding policies are significant marketing strategies that enable companies to attain their objectives.

Presently, customers have turned to be increasingly demanding in terms of their needs and preferences. Among several factors upon which they make their purchase decision, brand image is one such crucial factor.  An effective branding policy will assist ASDA to build an influential brand image that would attract customers and a benchmark for its competitors. However, the research is also significant for the fact that it would derive policies to improve the present brand image of ASDA to meet the current market requirements. For this reason, it can be pointed out that it is significant for ASDA to do the research regards the impact of brand image on buying behaviour of its consumers.

1.6 Problem Statement:

Brand image is a set of beliefs regards a specific brand or consumer’s perception regards a product. It conveys emotional value and not just mental image. However, a brand image should highlight organization’s mission and vision to all.  The main elements of positive brand image are: unique logo that reflects organization’s image, slogan-describing firm’s business and brand identifier supporting the key values.  The latter factors influence the customers’ perception of the brand in-turn motivating them to experience the same.

However, purchase decision making is also dependent on other factors as well. Besides brand image, customers undertake loyalty and purchase decision making on several other independent variables such as: reputation, relevance, performance, product knowledge and promotional price discount. Often if the brand falls short to meet the desired expectations in any of the latter attributes, customers might prefer to switch over preferences. Although it might be incorrect to state brand image is the only independent factor upon which consumers buying behaviour depends, yet the same plays a crucial role during purchase decision making. The present study will delve deeper to evaluate the influence of brand image on buying behaviour thereby recommending options to the ASDA to improve its branding policy as per current market requirements.

1.7 Dissertation Overview:

The entire dissertation has been subdivided into five sections, each bearing enough relevance in effectively completing the study. However, primarily a brief research will be undertaken as to how to carry forward with the project. Thereafter certain specifications have been mentioned in each chapter regards its content.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Herein, the research topic has been briefed besides also stating the background of the study. Company background and its branding policy have been briefed. However, aim, objectives and research questions have been detailed.  

Chapter 2: Literature Review

The secondary studies conducted by researchers in the past have mentioned here. However, critical analyses of secondary details have been conducted to judge its relativity.  Effectiveness of the branding policy of ASDA has also been evaluated here, although based on the acquired secondary data.

Chapter 3: Methodology

The chapter have stated the several research paradigms that have been followed in order to conduct the study. However, justifications for the choice of research paradigms have also been detailed here. Besides, the chosen sample size, sampling choice and similar other details have also been identified in the chapter.

Chapter 4: Findings and Interpretation

The primary data collected from the chosen respondents have been illustrated in the chapter. However, the quantitative and qualitative data have not been detailed in identical manner. While the quantitative details have been depicted in the form of graphs and charts, the qualitative section includes a descriptive brief of the responses.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

From the study conducted so far, the researcher have derived conclusion here. The objectives have been linked with both the primary and secondary details. On finding any flaws in the branding policy of ASDA, strategic recommendations have been offered to overcome the same.

1.8 Summary:

 The chapter have briefed the research topic and have also mentioned the background behind conducting the research. Rationale, scope and problem statement have been discussed here as well.  The aim, objectives and research questions that set a direction to the study have even been mentioned in the chapter. Finally, an overview of the entire dissertation has been provided for readers’ knowledge.

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.0 Introduction:

Aaker and Keller (2009) determined that customers have recently realized the importance of brand for undertaking purchase decision making.  People prefer branded products as it is deemed that such materials are of good quality than non branded products. However, the concept of branded or non branded materials is often developed by brand image that the customers perceive.  A brand having poorer image in the market might not be able to attract customers.  The customers tend to purchase or experience a specific brand having a strong market brand image. It is normally perceived that the products of the brands having a good market image will be able to meet the requirements of the target mass and their will not be any amount of dissonance during purchase.

Anand and Shachar (2009) determined that although brand image and attitude affects positively, the environmental issues can have a negative influence on the purchase behaviour of the customers. Customers recognize brand value based on several attributes such as: guarantee, social, personal identification and status symbol. These factors positively influence the decision to experience the brand and also ensure that they turn to be loyal purchasers of the brand. Contrary to the belied that brand image solely influences the purchase behaviour; Bagozzi (2013) also responded that product packaging, price and several other factors also influences the buying decision making. The present chapter will give stress regards the relevance of brand image and its relativity to buying behaviour.  The effectiveness of the current brand image of ASDA will also be evaluated herein.

2.1 Concept: Brand image:

Barber et al. (2006) determined that brand image is preset view of the customers regards a specific brand. It can also be defined as unique bundle of associations within the modest of the target mass and signifies what the brand presently stands for.  Brand image is significant for the fact that it positions a brand in the market and conveys emotional value and not just mental image. However, the brand image of an organization should state the mission and vision as only then the customers will be able to identify the effectiveness of its present offerings.

 The conceptions for brand image have been as undernoted:

Functional, symbolic and experience brand It is not simple phenomenon of understanding rather is affected by the communication of the activity.  A company is responsible to develop its market impression.
Conception Brand conception, reflecting associations of a consumer’s decisions.
Associations  Involves the consumer’s perception of the brand.

 

Table 1: Conceptions of brand image

(Source: Berry, L.L., 2011, p. 137)

It can thus be generalised that brand image is basically the general impression of a product held by real or potential customers that conveys the products character in a unique manner different from its competitors.

However, Bloch (2005) responded that for a brand to be successful, its images and symbols must relate to the needs, values and customers lifestyles in a way such the message intended to be transmitted add value and differentiate the same from the rest. In other words the significant element in developing a brand image is to have a clear differentiation with other products. Only then can the consumers easily be able to identify a brand from several similar brands in the market. This is the key to ensure customer satisfaction and loyalty which in turn translates into larger market share and higher revenue for the brand.

Butkeviciene et al. (2012) determined that the idea behind brand image is to build the image associated with product/service in a way such that customers develop a feeling that the same would fulfil their expectations and feel motivated to experience the same. In other words, brand image influences the purchase decision making of the customers. As the brand image conveys several attributes in consumers mind: attributes and benefits, they by themselves develops a rationale behind purchase. However, advertising is necessary for the purpose of the communicating the brand image. Byzalov and Shachar (2004) identified that a well-communicated brand image helps in developing a brand’s position, enhance its market performance and motivate its target mass to purchase the brand.

However, marketers are supposed to consider that product attributes, benefits and consequences’ of using a brand personality should be included while developing a brand image. Also periodic assessment of whether: members are content with the products and services or are the customers thinking to be able to attain similar products elsewhere are even required to be judged such the organizations motive to attract customers and influence their purchase decision making is met.

2.2 Factors influencing consumer buying behaviour:

Customers are normally influenced by the organizational brand image that helps in generating improved trust level regards the products and services.  Based on these factors, the customers possible develop an inclination to purchase the product. However, Chandan and Shilpa (2010) argued that building a strong and favourable brand image might be time consuming and there are chances of losing brand equity in case of very minor mistakes. Thus, a marketing plan aimed at developing a brand image is supposed to examine the cultural factors, social factors, personal and psychological factors. In support of the latter statement Cotte and Wood (2004) responded that firms are required to have an open-minded customer-oriented approach so that it can identify its target audience, lower dissatisfaction and stay ahead of competitors. Doing so will be helpful in influencing the purchase decisions of the target mass.

The major factors affecting consumer buying behaviour are:

factors-influencing-consumer-buying-behaviour

Figure 1: Factors influencing consumer buying behaviour

(Source: Delgado-Ballester, E. 2005, p. 196)

From the above illustration it can be inferred that the current culture, sub-culture and social class to which a customer belongs, influences the purchase decision making of the customers. Often it is seen that customers belonging from richer classes prefer to opt for products from a specific brand that is high priced. Others might not compromise on quality. Similarly, Dubey and Patel (2004) mentioned that social class impacts the purchase decision making of the customers. Often family or reference groups motivate the customers to purchase a product. In other words, the purchase decision is influenced by Word-Of-Mouth undertaken by known individuals. The roles and status of the consumers’ impacts the purchase decision making of the customers as often elite customers prefer branded or supreme quality products even if it is high priced.

Occupation and age/life style are personal factors affecting the purchase decision making of the consumers. An individual from low income background often prefers to access products that are not high priced and vice versa.  Similarly the age of a respondent also impacts the decision making as a retail brand offering varied products for separate target mass is mostly preferred rather than a one that houses considerable collection for only a single segment. Finally, Kaur and Kaur (2002) elaborated that psychological factor such as: motivation, perception, beliefs and attitudes influences the purchase behaviour of the customers. The message being conveyed in the market develops a certain belief that in turn directs the attitudes of the target mass. Also the current motivational or perception level being stored within the customers’ mindset directs their purchase intentions.

However, on the basis of the past literature the organizational brand image can be influenced by several other factors such as: consistency creativity and loyalty index.

2.2.1 Consistency:

In the contemporary market setting, firms that are able to promote a certain degree of uniqueness and creativity through innovative products and services are likely to be positively perceived.  In this connect; Hanna et al. (2011) determined that within the perfectly competitive market, customers tend to experience innovative products that would meet their desired products and service expectations to the exact extent possible. ASDA is also facing stiff competition from other brands such as Tesco, Sainsburys. The target motive of all retail firms is to positively influence customer’s perception such that the purchase intention is in its favour. By differentiating products and services, retail firms are able to channelize specific promotional policies such that the brand is easily distinguishable, relatable and more in demand. 

2.2.2 Creativity:

Kihlstrom and Riordan (2004) declared that a creative organization is effective in helping businesses to offer goods and services as per current customer preferences. However, in situations where a firm is unable periodically update the features and usability of the products, customers might not feel interested any more to avail the same. Although periodic innovation can be costly, yet customers prefer to purchase products that are more advanced by features and usability.

2.2.3 Loyalty Index:

Kuatbayeve (2013) determine that the present loyalty index of the firm is a crucial determinant factor for building brand image.  Several loyalty efforts undertaken by the organizations are helpful to motivate the customers to purchase than the others. Also, the loyalty efforts builds a perception regards the brand that encourages customers to experience its products and services. Thus, loyalty index acts as a catalyst for the firm to enhance its customer base.

conceptual-framework-asda-buying-behaviour-brand-image

 

 

Figure 2: Conceptual Framework

(Source: self created)

  2.3 Impact of brand image on consumer buying behaviour:

Maintaining brand image of a firm is a vital agenda as it influences the buying behaviour of the customer either positively or negatively. However, consumer buying behaviour is the integration of customer attitudes, preferences, perception about a brand and the decisions about purchasing product from a specific brand. As stated by Martenson (2007), consumer buying behaviour is an activity where people possess, consumes and dispose the products and services accordingly. However, brand image of the firm can be improved by providing unique service during pre purchase phase, purchase phase and after purchase service of the organisation (Naik and Prabhakar, 2010).

2.3.1 Impact of positive brand image on purchase behaviour:

Most of the consumers prefer to preview the brand image of an organisation before purchasing any product. It has been observed that 40-60% of the total population of the UK prefers to know the review of the firm before purchasing product from ant retail outlet (Gov.uk, 2014). However, North and Kotze (2004) argued that UK’s retail sector is presently experiencing tough competition due to which maintaining strong brand image has become mandatory option for the marketers. Few customers exhibit more emotions towards the brand which is the result of creating positive brand image within the global market.

A positive brand image is the function of brand loyalty which creates repurchases on each and every purchase from the end of the buyers. It has been observed that positive brand image creates the trust among the user which eventually turns into brand loyalty (refer to table).

Parameter Contribution Percentage on altering buying behaviour
Brand Image 67%
Brand Trust 33%

 

Table 2: Impact of positive brand image on purchase behaviour

(Source: Redmond, W.H., 2013, p. 186)

Above table describes that brand image of any firm holds the highest conversion ratio of creating positive purchase behaviour. However, brand trust depends on maintaining a consistent brand image over the years. Considering the fact, Palmer (2006) stated brand image can be established by making differentiable products, providing unique services to the customers and making customers aware about the products. Buying behaviour can be defined as a function of brand image and trust.

Buying behaviour= f (brand image, brand trust)

relationship-buying-behaviour-asda

 

Figure 3: Relationship of buying behaviour and the brand image

(Source: Porter, M.E., 2007, p. 436)

Customer retention and purchase decision:

A positive brand image makes the firm bound to produce unique association with the brands which is the key factor of customer retention. However, growth of the UK retail sector depends on retaining loyal customers to the brand by making the customers satisfied according to the perceived brand image of the firm (Rettie and Brewer, 2010). Considering the case of ASDA, it has created high customer retention ratio as compared to other market giants which can be drawn by the likes on the Facebook. Facebook likes of ASDA is around 1,393,115 which depicts that customer buying behaviour is positive for ASDA.

Purchase decision and increased revenue:

Brand image is referenced as a psychological aspect of the impression which can eventually create fluctuations within consumer mind (Rita, 2009). On the other hand, a positive brand image can influence the customer to purchase more and more from a specific brand (Robertson and Rossiter, 2007). Even if the customer listen a single scam about the firm, it makes the customer aggressive in leaving the brand immediately. Higher purchase of the products of a firm makes the able to gain higher revenues. ASDA had experienced increased revenue f4rom £21.8 billion to £22.8 billion in the year 2012 as compared to the year 2011 (Your ASDA, 2014).

In the late 1990s, the market position of ASDA was not up to the mark. The revenue percentage earned by ASDA was also very poor. By implementing strategic initiatives ASDA has made a strong brand image within the market place which has resulted in higher revenue made by ASDA.

asda-revenue-growth

 

 

Figure 4: Increased Growth of ASDA

(Source: Pulldigital.com, 2014)

Figure above describes that ASDA is experiencing higher growth within the global market and the same has made ASDA Britain’s second largest retailer after Tesco. The most important parameter behind this success is positive image of the firm.

2.3.2 Impact of negative brand image on purchase behaviour:

Consumer perception and reducing sales volume:

Negative brand image of the firm can significantly reduce the sales ratio of the organisation. As stated by Zboja and Voorhees (2006), majority of the UK population is internet savvy and uses Facebook significantly after the arrival of Web 2.0 application. This application has created the easiest way of reviewing any product or the brand over online media in a cost effective and time consuming way. Hence, a single negative brand image or comment posted in social media networking sites could effectively hamper the brand image of the firm resulting transferring onto other brand by the customers.

social-media-viewers-asda

 

 

Figure 5: Social media viewers to review a brand

(Source: Yoon, S.J., and Kim, J.H., 2012, p. 136)

Reducing sales volume and reducing brand loyalty:

Brand loyalty depends on a positive brand image of the firm. Repeated purchase of any customer could establish the brand loyalty as the brand loyalty is the function of consumer buying behaviour (Wells et al. 2006). Several organisations had experienced a reduced brand loyalty due to focusing more on adding features on the products rather than reading actual consumer needs. However, a positive brand image can be established by serving the customers according to the need. If any organisation fails to serve the customers properly, the brand image of the firm reduces resulting in reducing brand loyalty. The reduction is brand loyalty can be reflected into the reduced sales volume of the firm.

2.4 Merits and demerits of brand image on consumer buying behaviour:

2.4.1 Merits of brand image on consumer buying behaviour:

Statistical data shows that brand image promotes consumer purchase behaviour in a positive manner. Considering the fact, Underwood (2004)  stated that brand image consists of few factor such as saliency, reputation, familiarity, trustworthy and service excellence which accumulatively contributes positive buying behaviour (see table).

As brand image holds overall 67% weight age of influencing consumer buying behaviour, a positive brand image alone could become responsible in making higher revenue of the firm. The factors of brand image and the influencing power to alter consumer buying behaviour are given below:

Parameters forming brand image Percentage contribution
Saliency 16%
Reputation 14%
Familiarity 13%
Trustworthy 12.5%
Service Excellence 11.50%

 

Table 3: Brand image factors and its contributions on positive buying behaviour

(Source: Terrell, G.W., 2012, p. 59)

 “Saliency” holds the highest percentage value of overall brand image. By default, consumer buying behaviour changes depending on the contrasting factors exists within brand (Singh et al. 2011). The salient feature of the firm may be logo, the punch line of the firm. A heavy slogan or brand image can highly contribute positive consumer behaviour towards the specific brand. Saliency of ASDA is its slogan such as “You’re better off at ASDA” and the logo which is creating weight in making consumers ready to go for repeated purchase frequently (Brandingmagazine.com, 2014).

“Reputation” is second largest parameter in creating positive brand image. A firm’s market reputation can improve the brand image of the firm which can eventually turn into increased trust among the consumers. Increased trust can eventually lead to higher revenue to the firm.

“Familiarity” can also create positive perception about a brand and the customers can switch into well familiar brands easily. As a matter of fact, saliency and reputation both are responsible to form strong familiarity among the customers (Silayoi and Speece, 2007). Furthermore, strong familiarity creates trustworthiness within consumer mind.

Post 1998, ASDA was acquired by Walmart which was an established brand in the UK. The reputation and trustworthiness of Walmart was sound enough which had eventually made ASDA to grow up in the international retail business (Pulldigital.com, 2014).

Trustworthy:

Effective brand image holds a sound trustworthy factor which is the basic parameter of increasing customer loyalty and motivating the consumers to buy products from specific firm. According to Shin (2008), trustworthy is a psychological factor which can even create positive purchase behaviour as well as lagging in the same can effectively destroy the brand value of the firm. This factor is highly influential in those sectors which are experiencing tight competition within the global market.

Service excellence:

Higher service excellence motivates the customer to opt for new purchase on regular interval. As stated by Shachar and Anand (2008), the quality service creates a trust among the user which eventually creates a positive buying behaviour among the users.

Statistical data shows that retaining a loyal customer is much more effective than creating new customer base. A loyal customer can refer several customers to opt for the product of the specific firm. Hence, maintaining positive brand image is a necessary parameter for sustaining in global market.

2.4.2 Demerits of brand image on consumer buying behaviour:

Brand image is considered as one of the most vital criteria of influencing consumer buying behaviour. However, Sevier (2011) argued that brand image could become responsible for introducing psychological exploitation of the consumers. Demerits of brand image are discussed below:

Cost enhancement:

A good brand image makes the consumer loyal towards a specific brand. As a matter of fact, sound brand image makes the customer ready to purchases products from the specific brand even if the prices of the products increase extensively (Sehrawet and Kundu, 2007). It has been found that brand loyal customers prefer to spend any amount that is necessary to acquire the brand. For example, ASDA was offering men’s casual shirt in £6 in the year of 2012 whereas, the firm is now offering the same quality shirt on higher prices which is around £10. On the other hand, increased revenue of $22.8 billion has been earned by ASDA in the last year which was found more than the year 2012 (Ltd., A., 2014). It implies that the positive brand image is exploiting the global consumer in a significant way as well as the same is increasing the revenue of the retail organisation.

Threat to new entrants:

Positive brand image could create threat to the new comer organisations into the retail industry (Schoen Bachler, 2007). Positive brand image makes consumer so loyal that the customers always prefer to stick to the same brand even if other firm is offering higher quality in a lesser price. Same fact had been observed in the case of ASDA when ASDA had started its business operation across the country. After the takeover by Walmart it has gained the market position and now the brand has become second largest retail brand in Great Britain.

Lack of Variety:

Brand image reduces the ratio of consuming variety products from the competitors (Schlosser, 2005). It is a proven fact that brand loyal customers prefer to purchase always from the specific brand which reduces the chances of consuming variety products offered by the competitors. This event can reduce the flexibility of global population to consume varied products from varied brands which can eventually creates a misbalancing revenue generation among the firms.

 2.5 Branding policy of ASDA:

Branding policy is identified as one of the main determinant for business organisation to influence consumer buying behaviour in long run. In the words of Rundh (2006), branding policy and its successful implementation could distinguish a business organisation from its closed competitors. The branding policies of ASDA is analysed and mentioned below:

Giving importance on quality of products:

According to the CEO, ASDA repetitively strives to send the clear and specific messages to its consumers. The message contains that ASDA concentrates to make quality products according to the price. Lot of efforts have directed to improve and maintain the quality of ASDA’s own label products. For evaluating the tastes of ASDA’s own products, marketers have tried to taste its recipes to approximately 40,000 consumers. ASDA faced its second quarter of decline profitability. However, market reports pointed out that this leading organisation fails to implement its brand policies properly to influence the buying decisions of the consumers. According to Saksena (2009), brand policies and its proper implementation have changed the consumers’ perceptions of the brand drastically.

Reviving and strengthening brand policies:

Reviving and strengthening brand policies are attributed as one of the major features to determine the buying behaviours of the consumers in the long run. According to Hill and Hillier (2007), reinvigorating the branding policies play significant role in determining brand loyalty and influence buying behaviour of the consumers in the long run ASDA have tried focus on low price and other branding policies to attract customers. Customers have been attracted by being made known that the quality products at chap price are available. 

Quality of products and its innovation:

Quality of products and innovation are the two most important parameters to control the survival of the business in the long run. As per Wilson and Blumenthal (2008), in case of perfectly competitive market, business organisations offer similar kind and nature of products to the same targeted customers. In this case, quality of products helps the organisation to gain competitive advantage over its closed rivals. Innovation feature is also associated with quality to make differentiate the business organisation from others. To influence the buying decisions of the consumers, ASDA follows strategic marketing policies quality product offerings (Solomon, 2006).

Prioritised the own branded products:

Without proper implementing the branding policies, it is difficult for the business organisations to survive in the long run. Shin (2008) viewed that improper branding policies can reduce the market shares of the business organisations, considerably. On the other hand, own branded products generate the maximum revenue for the organisation. ASDA implements the branding policies designed to highlight its “foodie” credentials. ASDA’s own branded products account for half of the ASDA’s sales and profitability. These own branded products constitute the lion share amounting approximately £8-£9 billion of the total revenue. Apart from these products, ASDA’s cobranded and other products contain the smart and reasonable pricing (Gov.uk, 2014).

Using brand slogan:

The brand slogan is considered as one of the main attribute of ASDA’s brand policies. Schoen Bachler (2007) cited that effective brand slogan is helpful to influence the perceptions of the consumers. It creates positive brand image in the minds of consumers. Positive brand image affects the brand value of the organisation positively. By this way, consumers’ buying decisions get influenced by the brand value and appropriate brand policies. ASDA implements and adopts different types of slogans at different periods of time. According to Schlosser (2005), an organisation needs to adopt different slogans depending on the market trends, buying behaviour and demands of the consumers. In the year 2013, ASDA uses the slogan “You’re better off at ASDA”.

ASDA provides promises and safety to its targeted customers by unfolding that the consumers are remained at better and favourable stages at ASDA. Similarly Rita (2009) explained that promising safety and security increase positive perceptions in the minds of consumers. This in turn, helps the business organisation to gain trust and customer loyalty above the other existing firms. In this way, consumers’ buying decisions get influenced to purchase the products repetitively on the long run. The brand slogan is addressed to minimise the misconceptions arise in the minds of consumers regarding different issues of ASDA.      

2.6 Recommendations to improve the brand image:

Some ways are recommended here to improve the brand image of ASDA. These are mentioned and listed below:

Reducing importance on co- branded and other food products:

Quality of products is authenticated as one of the main factor for the business organisations to survive in the long run. In the words of Naik and Prabhakar (2010), product quality indicates the customer loyalty and long term sustainability for the business organisation. The CEO of ASDA predicts that the quality of food products at the co-branded food products are recognised as good quality as its competitors. The Wal-Mart-owned grocery shop of ASDA fails to deliver the quality food products to ASDA. This is identified as one of the main reasons to decline in sales and profitability of the organisation.

Schlosser (2005) stated that organisations need to concentrate on own branded products. The importance on co-branded and other branded products need to be reduced over the longer period of time. From this, it is recommended that proper initiatives could be taken by ASDA to reduce the importance of co-branded and other products.

Introduction of innovative food products:

In case of perfectly competitive market, business firms are offering similar quality of products to its customers. Rita (2009) attributed that an organisation differentiates its stand and market share by offering innovative food products and services to its targeted customers. Innovative products are considered as more useful in case of food product based industry. In the retail market, the organisations offer similar food products with the same range of prices. In this case, innovative food products are designed according to the dynamic changes in the demands of the consumers (Naik and Prabhakar, 2010). These products are designed mainly to provide services to satisfy the customers at the possible highest level. In other words, these products are offered also at the affordable prices.

Introduction of innovative food products creates the positive brand image and favourable perceptions in the minds of consumers. As Rita (2009) prescribed that innovative product designs are considered not an easy task. The marketers have to identify the dynamic business environment properly. The changes in tastes and preferences of the consumers are studied with the help of the clear vision. After that, marketing department is aligned with the R&D department to create and develop products according to the needs and demands of the consumers. Schlosser (2005) vision, in case of designing innovative products, the existing products of competitors’ and its usages are also examined carefully. This helps the business organisations to explore new ideas and concepts regarding the non availabilities of food products. These products need to innovate and introduce in the market on urgent basis.

The products that are not available in the market with the higher demands are authenticated as the best and suitable products to innovate (Rita, 2009). So it is suggested that ASDA may design its strategies along with the marketing department. In this case, R&D department also needs to combine with the marketing department. The unavailability of food products to ASDA’s closed competitors’ are reconsidered to innovate and deliver to the customers. The products need to be distributed at the affordable prices. Consumers get easily attracted by getting the newer food products at reasonable prices.

Implement the blogging of social networking sites:

Implementing and following the valuable advices and blogging enhance the brand image of the organisation positively. In the words of Schlosser (2005), the valuable advices and suggestions from different renowned celebrities add values to the services and strengthen the brand image of the organisation. In some cases, fans and followers of social net working sites contribute important steps to develop positive brand image of the organisation. ASDA, the renowned retailer in UK retail supermarket, already follows a database of large numbers of loyal customers, fans and followers. Celebrities from different levels also impart some valuable suggestions and blog regularly. The implementation of these suggestion and advices can shape the business prospects and brand image of ASDA in different and positive way. So it is recommended that, ASDA may implement the blogging and advices of social networking sites to strengthen the brand image of the organisation.       

Targeting the market properly:

Proper approaches for targeting the market explore the new business opportunities for the business organisation. In other words, it strengthens the brand image of the organisation (Rita, 2009). Retail industry emerges as one of the growing industry. Proper segmentation and target of the customers are considered as essential means to influence the buying decisions of the consumers also. The positive brand image can influences the target market in the following manners:

Job portals:

Collecting necessary data from job portals is considered as the important step to implement positive brand image. From the top job portals sites, the valuable information about the profiled customers and the backgrounds has been found and these can be used to enhance positive brand image and increased sales (Schlosser, 2005).

Websites:

The websites contain information regarding the status and other personal matters of the valuable customers. This could help ASDA to target the most valuable and potential customers.

Industry forums:

Sometimes the top industry forums address valuable steps to strengthen the positive brand image of ASDA.

Social media profiles:

The appropriate profiles of the customers could be judged through the social networking sites. This could ease the process of targeting suitable customers.   

2.7 Summary

This chapter focuses the various aspects regarding brand image and consumer buying behaviour. The findings and analyses have been correlated with the existing literatures, theories and models. At the first part of this chapter, the brand image and the factors influencing the consumer buying behaviour have been discussed. Accordingly, the impact of brand image on consumer on both positive and negative aspects has been explained. Similarly the merits and demerits of brand image on consumer buying behaviour have been evaluated. Subsequently, the branding policies of ASDA have also been mentioned.


 

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

3.0 Introduction:

In order to analyse the significance of brand image for influencing consumer behaviour, the researcher is supposed to select accurate research paradigms. The chosen research paradigms have been detailed in the current chapter besides laying the justification behind the choice of the same. The chosen sample size and sampling process have been detailed herein besides also briefing the data collection method and ethical considerations that have been maintained while conducting the study.

3.1 Method Outline:

In order to judge the influence created by organizational brand image on purchase intention of the consumers, the researcher have opted to collect data from both primary and secondary sources. While the secondary data collection sources include: books, journals and website, primary data have been accumulated from 60 customers of ASDA and 5 managers. However, difference lies in the nature of data accumulated from the sample. While quantitative responses have been gathered from the customers, qualitative details have been gathered from the managers. Sampling process is even different. In order to avoid any biased behaviour in decision making regards the sample choice, convenience sampling have been considered for collecting qualitative data and simple random sampling have been chosen for accumulating quantitative responses.  However, finally the positivism philosophy, descriptive research approach and deductive design have been opted here. A timeframe have been developed that has also been   illustrated in the present chapter.

3.2 Research Philosophy: Positivism

The researcher have opted for positivism research philosophy as it is a scientific study that supports studies based on social and organizational realities.  Truscott et al. (2010) mentioned that a positivism research philosophy is a research process used in social sciences. As it takes into account the social and organizational realties, the opted philosophy would help in analysing the impact of brand image on the purchase decision making of the target mass along with its significance in contemporary market setting. Unlike other philosophies, the chosen philosophy is helpful for the process of correlating both the primary and secondary details in order to arrive at a conclusion from the study.  Choice of other philosophies would have limited the scientific nature of study instead relied heavily on conclusion derived from human perception/interpretations.  Thus the primary details collected from the responses will be conjoined with the secondary details in order to evaluate the current effectiveness of brand image of ASDA aimed at influencing customers purchase behaviour.

3.3 Research Approach: Deductive

Contrary to the nature of inductive research approach, deductive study resumes from: theory development, hypothesis setting, observations and finally deriving conclusion (Toloie-Eshlaghy et al. 2011). The conclusion will be helpful in interpreting the justification of the current research topic. Several practitioners in the past have evaluated the significance of brand image. It has been studied that the brand image and buying behaviour are correlated. The choice of deductive research approach will assist in assessing the secondary details gained from several sources and match them with the primary data in order to finally confirm or reject the present research subject. Also as there is no need to develop any fresh theory, inductive research approach have not been chosen thus giving chances for the researcher to screen specific data regards the factors impacting the buying decisions and the significance of brand image in this respect. Doing so will help in better and detailed evaluation of the subject.

3.4 Research Design: Descriptive

The structured followed while conducting the descriptive research design process is as illustrated:

descriptive-research-design-brand-image-consumer-buying-asda

 

 

Figure 7: Descriptive Research Design

(Source: Morse, J.M., 2007, p. 123)

The purpose behind the choice of descriptive research design is that it helps in undertaking an in-depth analysis of the research subject.  Descriptive research design is effective for the purpose of supporting both quantitative and qualitative data.  Both types of information will assist in developing an idea regards the significance of brand image, its possible impact on the buying behaviour and in what other ways can retailers of UK better its branding policies.  The responses gained from the survey and interview process would facilitate accumulating detailed responses on the effectiveness of the current brand image of ASDA aimed at influencing the purchase intentions of its target mass.

3.5 Data Type:

Data type is a crucial part of research that steers the study towards successful execution.  The chosen data type s basically of two forms: primary and secondary data. Ramos (2009) noted that primary data are original by nature and helps in collecting first hand details from the chosen respondents. However, unlike the latter, secondary details involves published facts that have been studied by past authors. The data for the present research have been collected from both primary and secondary sources. Via primary sources, the researcher have accumulated relative first hand information regards the effectiveness of brand image for targeting the purchase behaviour. However, from secondary sources the researcher has evaluated the significance and relevance of effective branding policies for increasing customer base.

Moreover, focussing on the target outcomes primary data can be classified into quantitative and qualitative data.

3.6 Data Collection process:

As the data have been gathered from both primary and secondary sources, the specific areas from where the research related details are acquired are varied. The primary data collection sources includes: the chosen quantitative and qualitative respondents of the present study. However, secondary data have been gathered from: books, journals, website, blogs and annual reports of ASDA. The journals and books have assisted to attain detailed theories on the present research topic and thus be able to evaluate the impact on purchase decision making created by organizational brand image. Also from both the responses, the researcher is able to gather substantial data regards the effectiveness of the current brand image of ASDA aimed at impacting the purchase decision making of its target mass.

Questionnaire method:

Morgan (2007) mentioned that quantitative data is illustrated via graphs and tables thus helping in grasping the research under consideration. Survey method is not time consuming by nature instead is a cost effective approach wherein considerable respondents are supposed to answer the same questions. Similar questions regard the significance of brand image along with its relativity with customers purchase intentions can be widely judged by following the questionnaire survey method. However, as the numbers of quantitative sample are huge by number, the respondents have been surveyed by sending over the questionnaire via online mode.  The chosen survey process does not involve much time and the respondents are supposed to return the filled-in questionnaire to the email of the researcher.

Interview Process:

Qualitative details are basically accumulated by undertaking an interview session of the respondents. Johnson et al. (2007) determined that qualitative responses are detailed /descriptive by nature thus helping in detailing the research subject to a greater extent. Substantial responses accumulated from the chosen sample will assist in gaining an in-depth view regards the significance of brand image in contemporary market, its relativity with purchase intentions and assessing the  effectiveness of the present brand image of ASDA.  However, unlike the nature of quantitative data collection, qualitative details have been accumulated by personally interviewing the respondents and jotting down their responses.

3.7 Data Analysis methods:

The significance for following an authentic data analysis method is that it assists in proper accumulation a derivation of valid conclusions. However, the data analysis plan is varied for quantitative and qualitative data is varied by nature as is also for the present study. In order to analyse the quantitative data, the researcher have collected details via MS Excel and attempted to graphically represent the same through graphs and tables. Initially, the customers’ responses would be converted into numerical form and after processing the data, the responses would be represented using tables and charts. However, the mode of representing the qualitative responses is varied. As the qualitative details are descriptive by nature, their responses would be critically compared with the theoretical findings. Both the findings will be conjoined and triangulated with the secondary details to finally derive conclusions regards the impact of current branding policy of ASDA on the purchase behaviour of its customers.

3.8 Sampling method:

Freshwater (2007) determined that sampling is the crucial part of the research as the accuracy of findings is dependent on the appropriateness of data collected from selected sources. However, care should be taken to consider that sampling method is error free. Thus, in order to remain biased free in selecting sample, the researcher has opted to consider probability sampling method. Corner (2002) responded that probability sampling method allows the entire population to participate in the survey thus being biased free by nature. However, as it is not possible to include the entire population, the researcher opted to consider simple random sampling process.  Simple random sampling is employed in order to collect quantitative responses as the technique is efficient in selecting responses at random basis. However, convenience sampling is deployed for the process of selecting qualitative responses. Convince sampling is a part of non-probability sampling method wherein the respondents are selected such that they already posses background knowledge regards the research and could best respond to the study (Cameron, 2009).  The choice of convenience sampling was also due to the fact as the researcher could easily gain access to the managers and interview them.

3.8.1 Sample Size:

Choice of sample size below 35 can raise ethical issues. Thus, in order to avoid any such issues that could hamper the validity and reliability of collected data, the researcher choose to survey 60 customers of ASDA. The customers would be able to offer their varied responses on the present subject thus being able to ensure the validity of collected findings. However, as qualitative details are varied and descriptive by nature, the researcher chose to interview 5 managers of ASDA. As not all managers would have identical responses, their varied opinion will help in detailing the research subject further.

3.9 Ethical Considerations:

Brannen (2009) determined that research ethics distinguishes between the acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. In order to avoid the ethical issues, the researcher has strived to abide by few of the necessary ethical elements. The researcher will not force the respondents to respond in a particular way rather will them to respond at their free will. Next, the purpose of data collection will be made clear to the sample such that they are able to respond freely. The survey questionnaire would be free of any offensive elements, particularly relating to human feelings and belief. Finally, it will be made sure that the data collected for the present study will not be made public rather will be used solely for the academic purpose. Also, the entire company related details accumulated from the publications will not be made public and will be destroyed after the preset research is successfully undertaken.

3.10 Limitations:

The researcher has faced certain limitations for the present study. The primary limitation that has been faced was that of the time frame.  As a result of time frame, the researcher was not able to deeply undertake the subject of research. Besides, the number of sample selected for quantitative research was limited to 60. Had the researcher choose to survey more number of respondents, then there could have the possibility of the gaining a deeper view of the research. Next, the managers were questioned for conducting qualitative interview. There could be a possibility that the managers provide some biased opinion while responding. Any kind of biased statements might hamper the prospect of gaining an accurate view on the present research topic. Finally, the entire research is based on the case of ASDA; the findings from the study might not be applicable for similar findings.

3.11 Gantt Chart:

The researcher has framed a specific timeline in order to complete the entire study within the time fame and prevent excess time consumption in undertaking the research. The timeframe that have been framed is illustrated in the appendix:

3.12 Conclusion:

Herein, the researcher have briefed several research paradigms that have been considered in order successfully conduct the study. The choice of specific paradigms have also been justified that would help the researcher to gain knowledge regards as to how the same would help in furthering the study. The chosen sample size, sampling process, data analysis and data collection method has even been briefed within the chapter.

 

 

Chapter 4

Findings and Analysis

4.0 Introduction

The primary data gathered from the chosen sample have been detailed in the present chapter. However, the mode of representing the responses is varied. While the quantitative responses have been illustrated in the form of graphs and tables, the qualitative details have been detailed. The representation of quantitative details is considered to be helpful in easy interpretation from the findings. Data triangulation have been undertaken in order to judge the relevance between the primary and secondary details.  Contrary to the latter, as qualitative responses have been gathered via interview session and descriptive by nature, no alteration has been made while detailing the same herein. Thus, below are the responses that have been gathered via interview and survey session.

Part A: Quantitative data

  1. Are you of the opinion that organizational brand image influences your purchase decision making?

Table 4: Influence on purchase decision by organizational brand image:

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Strongly Agree 13 60 22%
Agree 23 60 38%
Neutral 5 60 8%
Disagree 11 60 18%
Strongly Disagree 8 60 13%

 

Findings:

Most of the respondents (38%) agreed to the fact that their purchase decision making is influenced by brand image. However, not all had similar opinion on the current subject. Contrary to the latter respondents, 18% disagreed. 13% supported the latter respondents and mentioned that they strongly disagreed on the positive influence of brand image on purchase decision. As against the disagreed respondents, 22% agreed on the notion that they undertake purchase decision based on the present brand image of the organization.

Analysis:

Analysing the above findings, it is clear that organisational brand image holds significant position in influencing the purchase behaviour of the consumer. As stated by Butkeviciene et al. (2012), a strong brand image creates a great feeling within consumers mind which eventually turns into positive purchase decision (refer to section2.1). On the contrary, social class also impacts significantly on the purchase behaviour of the consumers. This might be the reason disagreeing of few customers of ASDA which has been also mentioned by Dubey and Patel (2004) in section 2.2. However, overall analysis indicates that organisational brand image plays a crucial role in influencing the purchase behaviour of the customer.

  1. Have your current choice of retail brand (ASDA) is a result of its branding policies?

Table 5: Choice of ASDA due to its branding policies

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Yes 44 60 73.33%
No 13 60 21.67%
Neutral 3 60 5%

 

Findings:

Not all respondents had similar opinion on the present subject.  While 73.33% confirmed that their present choice is the result of branding policy of ASDA, 21.67% were against the statement. Possibly their brand choice is in no way influenced by the current branding policies of ASDA. Contrary to the latter statements, 5% were neutral on the subject and did not prefer to respond either ways.

Analysis:

Findings above indicates that majority of the respondents are choosing ASDA brand due to its excellent branding strategies. Similar fact has been stated by Rundh (2006) that branding policy and successful implementation could distinguish the business organisation from the competitors (refer to section 2.5). However, ASDA has given less priority on its co brands due to which few customers are not considering the branding policy of ASDA as good one. Finally, overall findings suggest that ASDA is influencing the customers to choose the brand by maintaining a sound branding policy.

  1. Rate a specific impact of brand image on your purchase decision making?

Table 7: Impact of brand image on purchase decision making

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Saliency 9 60 15%
Reputation 13 60 22%
Familiarity 11 60 18%
Trustworthy 17 60 28%
Service Excellence 10 60 17%

 

Findings:

22% of respondents determined that brand image helps in building reputation thus influencing the purchase decision making. Contrary to the latter, 15% stated that brand image helps in building saliency and 18% mentioned that brand develops familiarity with the brand. Besides the latter opinions, 17% identified that brand image ensures service excellence thus influencing the purchase decision making.  Most of the respondents had other ideas to state. 28% of the customers determined that brand image builds trustworthiness thus motivating them to experience the brand.

Analysis:

Above findings describes that trustworthiness and reputation are the major factors of influencing purchase decision making. As mentioned by Shin (2008), trustworthiness is a psychological factor which can either create positive or negative impact according to the degree variation (refer to section 2.4.1). However, service excellence and saliency also holds important position on making purchase decision. As stated by Silayoi and Speece (2007) in section 2.4.1, saliency and reputation are responsible to create familiarity which influences the purchase behavior of the customer. However, overall analysis describes that reputation and trustworthiness is the basic factor of influencing consumer buying behavior.

  1. Rate the specific factor that has influenced your current purchase decision making?

Table 8: Factor influencing the purchase decision making

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Cultural factor 14 60 23%
Social factor 16 60 27%
Personal factor 17 60 28%
Psychological factor 13 60 22%

 

Findings:

Several factors is considered to have helped the customers during purchase decision making. 27% identified that social factors have impacted their decision making while 28% stated that personal factor have influenced their purchase decision making. Contrary to the latter, 22% determined that their purchase decision have been impacted by psychological factor while 23% stated that their current decision making have been impacted by cultural factor. Thus, the purchase decision making have not been impacted by any single factor, as could be seen from the responses.

Analysis:

Majority findings analyses that personal factor and the social factor are the key indicators of influencing purchase decision making. Occupation and life style are the key personal factors for influencing the purchase decision of the customers. On the other hand, the impact of psychological factor and cultural factors cannot be ignored. Considering the fact, Kaur and Kaur (2002) stated in section 2.2 that psychological factors such as belief, perception and motivation hold significant position in influencing consumer purchase behaviour. Cultural factor also holds vital position on influencing consumer buying behaviour. However, overall analysis indicates that social, personal, psychological and cultural factors altogether can influence consumer buying behaviour positively.

  1. How far are you content with the present branding policies of ASDA?

Table 9: Satisfaction level from the present branding policy of ASDA

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Strongly Satisfied 11 60 18.33%
Satisfied 20 60 33.33%
Neutral 4 60 6.67%
Dissatisfied 13 60 21.67%
Strongly Dissatisfied 12 60 20%

 

Findings:

33.33% of the customers were satisfied with the present branding policies of ASDA while 6.67% were neutral on the present subject. Contrary to the latter statement, 18.33% respondents were strongly satisfied with the present branding policy of their chosen brand. However, 21.67% were dissatisfied regards the present branding strategies of ASDA and 20% were strongly dissatisfied on the same. Thus, not all had similar opinion on the present subject rather had varied opinion on the present branding policies of ASDA.

Analysis:

Findings above indicate that most of the customers are happy with the present branding policy of ASDA. According to the customers, ASDA is focusing more on quality products and innovation. Similar fact has been stated by Saksena (2009), focusing more on quality implementation could enhance the satisfaction level of the customers (refer to section 2.5). On the contrary, ASDA is significantly giving importance on the cobranded products. It needs to be reduced over long period of time to make the customers more satisfied. This might be the reason of existing dissatisfaction among few users. However, overall states that ASDA is following a satisfactory branding policy to make the customers happy with it.

  1. Which of the following branding policies of ASDA have influenced your brand choice and purchase decision making?

Table 10: Influence of present branding policy of ASDA

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Quality products 14 60 23.33%
Innovative activities 16 60 26.67%
Prioritization of own branded goods 19 60 31.67%
Using brand slogan 11 60 18.33%

 

Findings:

The branding policies of ASDA have had positive influence on the customers. 23.33% respondents determined that they have been influenced by product quality. 26.67% customers stated that their decision making is the result of innovative products being offered by ASDA in order to enhance its brand image. Contrary to the latter statements, 31.67% sample is considered to be influenced by prioritization of own branded goods and 18.33% determined that ASDA’s slogan have motivated them to experience the brand.

Analysis:

Overall findings analyses that prioritising own branded goods and offering innovative products have mostly influenced the customers of ASDA in the context of purchase decision making. As stated by Shin (2008), improper branding can reduce the market share of the firm which could be mitigated by making more and more own branded goods (refer to section 2.5). However, brand slogan usage of ASDA is also motivating the customers to adopt the brand. As mentioned by Bachler (2007) in section 2.5, effective brand slogan is helpful to influence the consumer purchase behaviour. However, it is clear that prioritising own goods is the most effective way of influencing the customers of ASDA.

  1. Would you prefer to remain loyal to ASDA following its current branding policy?

Table 11: Loyalty towards ASDA

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Yes 30 60 50%
No 18 60 30%
Neutral 12 60 20%

 

Findings:

50% of the respondents determined that they would prefer to stick to their present brand choice as a result of its branding policies. However, not all had similar opinion on the subject. Contrary to the latter judgment, 30% customers identified that they would chose to switch over preference on occasion of the current branding policies of ASDA. There were even few others who choose to remain neutral. 20% customers were indecisive and were unable to determine their future brand loyalty decisions.

Analysis:

According to the above findings, majority customers are loyal to the brand ASDA. Positive brand image and higher service offerings to the customer has made the customers loyal to the brand. As stated by Palmer (2006), brand loyalty depends on the offerings of differentiable products and services to the customers (refer to section 2.3.1). However, the firm is offering more co branded products on some specific product lines which are hampering the brand loyalty slightly. Nevertheless, overall analysis shows that majority of the customers are loyal to the brand ASDA.

  1. 8. Do you consider that ASDA is supposed to revive and strengthen its brand policies in order to advance its influence on your purchase and loyalty decision making?

Table 12: Necessity to revive the branding policies of ASDA

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Strongly Agree 14 60 23.33%
Agree 20 60 33.33%
Neutral 5 60 8.33%
Disagree 11 60 18.33%
Strongly Disagree 10 60 16.67%

 

Findings:

Few customers were against the present subject and disagreed to the fact that ASDA should revive its branding policies (18.33%). Not all had similar opinion on the subject.  As against the latter statement, 23.33% strongly agreed   that ASDA is supposed to advance its branding techniques. Contrary to the latter statement, 33.33% sample agreed that ASDA is required to build its branding strategies above the present level to overcome the flaws within the system. Not all respondents had identical opinion. 16.67% strongly disagreed that there is any need for ASDA to revive its branding policies in order to influence the loyalty decision making.

Analysis:

Above findings states that majority of the customers would like to change the purchase decision after reviving and strengthening the branding policy of ASDA. Supporting to this fact, Hill and Hillier (2007) stated that reviving the branding policy plays a significant role in maintaining the brand loyalty of the organisation (refer to section 2.5). However, frequent reviving can also create reduced market share as frequent variation of product can create confusion among the users. This could significantly reduce the brand loyalty and the market share of the firm.  Overall analysis indicates that a potential reviving and strengthening policy of ASDA ca significantly influence the brand loyalty and the purchase behaviour of the customers.

  1. By implementing the blogging on social networking sites, ASDA can improve its brand image. Do you agree?

Table 13: Significance for implementing blogging on social networking sites

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Strongly Agree 10 60 17%
Agree 21 60 35%
Neutral 2 60 3%
Disagree 14 60 23%
Strongly Disagree 13 60 22%

 

 

Findings:

Considerable respondents were in favour of the present strategy. 35% of the respondents agreed that ASDA could build its brand image by implementing blogging on social networking sites. 3% were neutral on the subject. 23% disagreed on the concept that blogging can help ASDA to enhance its brand image. Against the latter determination, 17% strongly agreed and were in favour of undertaking blogging on social networking sites for ASDA to build its brand image.

Analysis:

Majority of the customers think that implementing blogging and social networking sites can significantly build the brand image of ASDA. As stated by Schlosser (2005), blogging and social networking sites allows the users to get valuable information from celebrities which add special value to the brand (refer to section 2.6). The followers of social networking sites contribute important suggestions for developing strong brand image of the firm. Although, some customer were disagreeing with the fact, overall analysis shows that social media and blogging can effectively build a strong brand image of ASDA.

  1. Rate a specific branding policy that you consider is necessary for ASDA to improve its brand image amongst the competitors.

Table 14: Recommended branding policy of ASDA

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Target the market properly 18 60 30%
Collect information from job portals 15 60 25%
Social media profiles 17 60 28%
Industry forums 10 60 17%

 

Findings:

There are several recommended policies for ASDA to improve its brand image amongst its competitors. 30% of the customers determined that ASDA is required to target its market accurately while 25% respondents stated that the brand could collect customer details from the job portals thus helping in enhancing its market image. Against the latter statement, 28% respondents elaborated that ASDA could form social media forums to enhance its brand image while 17% identified the need for forming industry forums to build the brand image of ASDA.

Analysis:

Findings above indicate that by targeting the market via social media profiles can significantly improve the brand image amongst the competitors. Same fact has been stated by Rita (2009) that potential market targeting strategy explores new business opportunities for business organisation (refer to section 2.6). However, the social media profile is also significantly helpful in making a brand loyal to the customers. Furthermore, gathering information from job portals can be also treated as brand loyalty building exercise as the background of various potential customers are found which could used as sales database. Hence, it can be stated that targeting the market can become the most important parameter to enhance the brand value of ASDA.

  1. Do you consider that ASDA is supposed to reduce importance on co-branded and their food products as a strategy for product diversification?

Table 15: Need to reduce importance on co-branded and food products

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Strongly Agree 8 60 13.33%
Agree 22 60 36.67%
Neutral 3 60 5%
Disagree 14 60 23.33%
Strongly Disagree 13 60 21.67%

 

Findings:

36.67% respondents agreed on the need for the brand to reduce importance on co-branded and food products and 13.33% strongly supported the statement. However, 23.33% disagreed on the present determination and were against the need for the brand to decrease the importance on co-branded and food products. 21.67% strongly disagreed regards the necessity of ASDA to decrease the significance given to co-branded and food products. 

Analysis:

Above findings indicates that ASDA needs to reduce the importance on producing co branded products in order to achieve a stable brand image and loyalty in global market. As stated by Schlosser (2005), organisations need to concentrate more on own branded products than co branded products (refer to section 2.6). The approach may reduce the quality level of the product which could create a negative brand image to the consumers. Hence, it can be stated that it is better for ASDA to focus less on producing co branded product in order to maintain the brand image and loyalty within the global market.

  1. Would you agree that ASDA currently requires upgrading its R&D for innovative offerings aimed at influencing your choice of brand?

Table 16: Need to upgrade R&D to influence brand choice

Options Frequency Total Respondents % Response
Strongly Agree 15 60 25%
Agree 20 60 33.33%
Neutral 4 60 6.67%
Disagree 10 60 16.67%
Strongly Disagree 11 60 18.33%

 

Findings:

18.33% strongly disagreed on the concept regards the necessity of ASDA to advance its R&D for developing innovative product offering. 16.67% disagreed on the current notion, although not all had similar opinion on the present subject. 33.33% agreed on the present subject and determined that ASDA is required to advance its R&D process for improving its customer offerings.

Analysis:

As per the majority concern, ASDA needs to upgrade the R&D section to influence the brand choice. As stated by Rita (2009), organisation differentiates the stand and the market share by upgrading the R&D section of the firm (refer to section 2.6). Most of the organisations are offering similar food products to the customers and introducing innovative products could be a vital factor of influencing the brand choice of the customers. Although, few customers are disagreeing with the fact, majority analysis states that upgrading R&D could be a vital agenda for improving the brand choice of the customers.

Part B: Qualitative data

  1. How do you think brand image influences customers buying behaviour?

Responses:

One of the mangers stated that branded products acts a symbol of status within a society or community. Hence, brand image is an implied technique that enhances the profitability of an organization among many others. Moreover, as per the response of the second manger, branded products are preferred due to its better quality and style. It is mentioned by Butkeviciene et al. (2012) that brand image enhances the emotional values and ideas thereby inspiring the individual to purchase the product lines of that specific brand as compared to many other rival players (as mentioned in subsection 2.1).

Brand image is considered as a promise or bonding with the customer and marketer, that improves their loyalty and confidence over the products as mentioned by third and fourth manger. Similarly, according to the fifth manager, brand is just like a personal identification mark, that affects positively over the minds of the customers and extends their willingness to retain with the similar brand in future. It is also mentioned by Chandan and Shilpa (2010) that brand image motivates the customers to purchase the products, in spite of others (as mentioned in subsection 2.2).

  1. In what ways have you been able to influence the buying behaviour of your customers through your current branding policies?

Responses

One of the mangers stated that, presentation of best quality of products acted positively on the buying behaviour of the target customers. As a result of which, the total revenue enhanced to a considerable extent. It is also mentioned by Robertson and Rossiter (2007) that brand policies affects the psychological aspects of the customers (as mentioned in subsection 2.3.1). Two other managers opined that the policy of fair pricing also improved that reputation and brand value of the organization in this contemporary market among others. Thus, it may be depicted that lowest pricing is a technique to attract wider range of customers of varying age groups and incomes.

The fourth and the fifth manger highlighted that the policy of offering differentiated and trendy products enhanced the psychology of the customers that increased their trust and confidence considerably. It is mentioned by Rettie and Brewer (2010) that branding policies enhances customer retention (as mentioned in subsection 2.3.1). Thus, it might be clearly inferred as per the responses of the mangers that branding policies enhances brand loyalty by inspiring the customer for repurchases.

  1. Could you identify the factors upon which the customers buying behaviour of your products depends?

While answering this question, first manger highlighted that, quality is one of the most important aspects that influence customer buying behaviour. It is also mentioned by Cotte and Wood (2004) that quality highly influences the buying behavior of the customers (as mentioned in subsection 2.2). Two other managers focused on lifestyle and personality attributes as some of the most important aspects that affected customer buying behavior. It is also mentioned by Delgado-Ballester (2005) that social class offers significant impact over the buying behavior of the customers (as mentioned in subsection 2.2).

The fourth manager highlighted the cultural aspects such as age, life cycle etc are significant factors affecting purchasing decision. Finally the fifth manager mainly confined stated that, occupation and income and lifestyle need to be offered high preferences among others. Only then, the customer might satisfy the demands and requirements very easily, without facing any difficulty. Moreover, if the organization presents its products, keeping in mind all these aspects, then it might surely attract the widest range of customers thereby amplifying its market share.

  1. How far are you content with the branding policies of Asda aimed at influencing the buying behaviour?

Responses:

The managers had distinct opinion on the present subject. 1 manager determined that they have been moderately successful in carving a niche in the market by focussing on product quality.  Saksena (2009) in section 2.5 mentioned that by focussing the strategy towards quality product offerings they could change the consumers’ perceptions of the brand drastically. Customers are all the more attracted to purchase quality products of Asda. However, price and products quality is simultaneously not rationally judged by Asda. 2 other managers pointed out that quality products and innovation and policies aimed at reviving the brand policies could be considered as successful branding strategy of Asda. According to the latter respondents, Asda have been successful in moulding its customer’s decision making by offering innovative products against that of its competitors.

The fourth manager responded that by prioritising own branded products, Asda constitute the lions share amounting approximately £8-£9 billion of the total revenue. Asda implements the branding policies designed to highlight its “foodie” credentials, thus building an effective brand image aimed at customer attraction and satisfaction. However, the final manager was of the opinion that “You’re better off at ASDA” have been designed to promise safety and security thus increasing positive perceptions in the minds of consumers. In support of the latter statement, Bachler (2007) in 2.5 cited that effective brand slogan is helpful to influence the perceptions of the consumers thus influencing their behaviour.

  1. In what other ways can ASDA improve its brand image and enhance its customer loyalty to be able to build customer base?

Responses:

Several managers had different point to answer. 1 manager pointed out that in order to advance the company’s brand image, it needs to try and give importance to own products rather than co-branded products which will in turn help it in ensuring long term sustainability. In support of the latter statement, Schlosser (2005) stated in section 2.6 that organisations need to concentrate on own branded products. Introduction of innovative food products and implementing the blogging on social sites could also be possible recommendation to improve brand image and equity in the market, as referred by 2 respondents respectively. Blogging will help in building closure personal touch while R&D to develop innovative products will motivate the customers to experience the brand.

The final two managers pointed out that Asda could implement specific targeting strategies to target the market. According to latter’s opinion, industry forums, social media profiles and websites could serve as an interactive platform for both the company and customers. Specific customer attention can be given via social media thus enabling in separately satisfying the preferences of target mass. Rita (2009) in section 2.6 also supported the current recommendation by stating that it strengthens the brand image of the organisation.

 

 

 

Chapter 5

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Introduction

After undertaking a detailed study regards the influence of brand image on consumer behaviour, herein, the researcher has finally arrived at a conclusion. However, the conclusion has been arrived by triangulating both the primary and secondary responses. The triangulation method will assist in finding a relation between both types of data and deriving how far the objectives are met. Besides, recommendations have also been detailed so that ASDA can overcome its current flaws within its branding policies. The suggestions will assist the brand to increase its loyal customer base. Finally, scope of future study and limitations faced while undertaking the present research have even been detailed.

5.1 Linking with the objectives:

  • Objective 1: To assess the necessity of brand image on the buying behaviour of ASDA’s customer:

After analysing the responses of the respondents and mangers, it may be inferred that brand image offers significant influence over the buying behaviour of the customers of ASDA. This is because; brand image acts as symbol of status, personal identification and trust that enhances the motivation of the customers towards the brand. Hence, the profitability and demand of the products of ASDA increases rather than the existing rival players. As per the results found in part A, question 1 and 2, brand image and branding policies offers positive impact over the purchasing decision of the customers of ASDA.

Moreover, brand image acts as a medium to improve the excellence and reputation of the organization within the minds of the customers among others. As per the results found in question 3 and 4, brand image improves customer inspiration and expansion rate. Thus, improvement of customer retention enhances the productivity and equity of the organization in this contemporary era. The results are also highlighted by Butkeviciene et al. (2012) that brand image acts as a symbol to increase the loyalty and reputation of the customers towards the product lines of ASDA among others. Other than this, brand image also enhances the emotional and personal values of a customers and it surely acts as vital aspect to improve distinctiveness of ASDA. It is also mentioned by Butkeviciene et al. (2012) that brand image inspires customers purchasing behaviour and the branding policies also offers positive impact over buying attitude (as mentioned by the managers in question 1 of part B). Thus, after evaluating all the above mentioned points, it may be inferred that the objective is entirely satisfied.

  • Objective 2: To identify whether the current brand image of ASDA promotes sufficient values to promote customers’ loyalty.

Objective 2 can be addressed by analysing quantitative question 5, 6, 7, 8 sand qualitative question 4.  Part A question 5 and 6 describes that most of the customers are satisfied with the branding policy of ASDA and the customers are found loyal to the brand. However, question 6 describes that ASDA is mainly focusing on prioritising own branded goods to improve better service and product quality. Similar fact has been stated by Shin (2008) that prioritising own branded product is necessary to promote the brand loyalty of the organisation (refer to section 2.5). According to question 7 and 8, most of the customers would like to remain loyal to the brand ASDA due to its differentiable product and service offering to the customers. On the contrary, few customers also stated that ASDA needs to revive the present branding strategy to enhance the loyalty.

Part B question 4 describes that ASDA‘s current brand image is sufficient enough to promote customer loyalty. ASDA has specially focused on product quality to retain the loyal customers to the brand. As stated by Saksena (2009) in section 2.5, strategy towards quality products offering could enhance the perception of the customer which could effectively enhance the brand loyalty of the organisation. Hence, it can be stated that the brand image if ASDA is promoting sufficient values to promote customers loyalty although there are room for improvement as well. The objective is thus met

  • To derive strategic options that could assist Asda in improving its brand image and enhance customers’ loyalty.

From the quantitative responses, it can be concluded that ASDA could develop its brand image in several ways. Part A, question 9 pointed out that blogging on social sites is an effective way to promote the brand and interact with customers. However, it can also be inferred from both the majority customers in question 10 and Rita (2009) in section 2.6 that by targeting policy, ASDA can be able to serve the products preference and service needs in the best possible way. Doing so will help it in building brand image thus motivating the customers to experience the brand. Besides the respondents even voted in favour of focusing on social media profiles in order to advertise the products and services such that the customers could easily identify the availability of the desired preference. On knowing, the customers will definitely opt to purchase from ASDA.

Besides the latter suggestions, from question 11, it can be concluded that ASDA is supposed to reduce dependence on co-branded products rather focus on own products or opt for product diversification. Contrary to the latter, from question 12, it can be inferred that ASDA must upgrade its R&D activities in order to develop fresh service delivery module. Doing so will help the brand to build a USP and thus motivate the mass to purchase from the brand. Similar statement have also been mentioned by most of the managers in question 5 (part B) and Schlosser (2005) stated in section 2.6 thus recommending R&D strategy for building brand image for influencing  thee behaviour of ASDA’s target customers. The objective is thus satisfied.

5.2 Recommendations

Brand image of a firm holds significant position to influence consumer buying behaviour. Positive brand image can enhance the customer buying behaviour, whereas a negative brand image also reduces the buying behaviour of the customers. ASDA is one of the most leading supermarket retailers in UK. However, the brand image of ASDA is not found as much as Tesco or Walmart. Few strategic initiatives can improve the brand image which could significantly improve the consumer buying behaviour are given below:

Being consistent and innovative:

Maintaining consistency and innovativeness are the prime factors of enhancing the brand image of the organisation. Consistent performance influences consumer buying behaviour in the global market. Furthermore, long term consistency creates trustworthiness which eventually turns into brand loyalty. Trustworthiness is a typical psychological effect which makes the customer bound to purchase product from a single brand all the time.

Innovativeness is the factor which attracts new customers toward a specific brand. Due to extreme market competition, most of the business organisations are offering complete new products having different features and added advantage in a lesser price. Innovative product can be created by establishing a strong R&D unit into the business structure. A large organisation like Tesco allows the customer into business discussion and innovate the products according to the need and demand of the customers.

Past studies reveal that ASDA has not entered into market study and customer engagement more before, due to which the brand image of ASDA was found to be lesser than other retail giants. Hence, focusing more on consistency and innovativeness could successfully enhance the brand image of the firm which can eventually turn into positive consumer purchase behaviour. 

Increased communication via social media:

In today’s globalised business environment, communication plays a vital role in creating a positive brand image of an organisation. Arrival of Web 2.0 application has made the communication path easier to the global population. Present tradition shows that most of the consumers like to see the rating of the company before purchasing a product. Improved communication via social media can create positive brand image by serving millions of customers in a lesser time period. ‘Rewarding fans over social media’ could create interest among the user to comment more and more on the products of ASDA. Furthermore, the same could eventually create positive buying behaviour of the customer.

Large retail organisations are found to communicate more frequently with the customers to solve the problems and the queries of the accordingly.  Frequent communication reduces the gap between customer and the organisation which eventually turns into brand loyalty. Hence it can be concluded that social media channel can serve the firm by acting like a frequent communicator of ASDA in the global business platform.

Attending trade shows and local events:

Trade show assists the manufacturer and the retailers to get the exposure in the global business market. Events and trade shows enhances the sales volume by prequalifying the event attendees. Trade shows are specially organised for the industry members who opts to buy product for own distribution channel. On the other hand, local event could serve ASDA to accumulate database of ample of customers which could become beneficial to ASDA in future. However, a local event allows the firm to demonstrate the benefits and services of the product to the end users.  On the other hand, ASDA can provide free sample to the walk-in customers by conducting local events. The free sampling can effectively make customers happy and interested in further purchasing the product. This could become an opportunity for ASDA to get feedback from the customers and positive word of mouth referrals can drive the sales of ASDA upward.

5.3 Limitations:

The secondary data that have been collected had to be narrowed down to optimum extent due to unavailability of enough time. Thus, the research could have been detailed further. Besides, the study can be deemed to be too broad as it focussed on evaluating the brand image of the entire branch of Asda in UK rather than a specific branch. A narrower study could have been more effective in arriving at an authentic conclusion. Finally, had the study undertaken a comparison between the influence of brand image on consumer behaviour of Asda and any other company, the result would have been more authentic.

5.4 Future Scope for study:

The present study was quite broad with respect to analysing the branding policy of the entire Asda group rather than a specific branch. Future study on the present topic can be furthered by evaluating the branding policy of a specific branch of Asda and how far it has been successful in positively influencing the behaviour of its target mass. Next, the current research can even advanced by comparing the branding policy of Asda with any of its competitors. It would help in deeper evaluation of the effectiveness of present branding policy of Asda with for customer attraction.

 

 

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Appendix:

Research operations 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th & 5th week 6th week 7th week
Selection of topic            
Literature Review            
Choosing appropriate research methods            
Primary data collection            
Data analysis and interpretation            
Assessing findings and documenting discussions            
Deriving conclusion and recommendation            
Final submission            

Exhibit 1: Gantt chart

 

Table 17: Gantt chart

(Source: developed by author)

 

 

Exhibit 2:

Quantitative Questionnaire

Name:

Current Choice of brand:

  1. Are you of the opinion that organizational brand image influences your purchase decision making?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Have your current choice of retail brand (ASDA) is a result of its branding policies?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Neutral
  1. Rate a specific impact of brand image on your purchase decision making?
  • Saliency
  • Reputation
  • Familiarity
  • Trustworthy
  • Service Excellence
  1. Rate the specific factor that has influenced your current purchase decision making?
  • Cultural factor
  • Social factor
  • Personal factor
  • Psychological factor
  1. How far are you content with the present branding policies of ASDA?
  • Strongly Satisfied
  • Satisfied
  • Neutral
  • Dissatisfied
  • Strongly Dissatisfied
  1. Which of the following branding policies of ASDA have influenced your brand choice and purchase decision making?
  • Quality products
  • Innovative activities
  • Prioritization of own branded goods
  • Using brand slogan
  1. Would you prefer to remain loyal to ASDA following its current branding policy?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Neutral
  1. Do you consider that ASDA is supposed to revive and strengthen its brand policies in order to advance its influence on your purchase and loyalty decision making?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. By implementing the blogging on social networking sites, ASDA can improve its brand image. Do you agree?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Rate a specific branding policy that you consider is necessary for Asda to improve its brand image amongst the competitors.
  • Target the market properly
  • Collect information from job portals
  • Social media profiles
  • Industry forums
  1. Do you consider that ASDA is supposed to reduce importance on co-branded and their food products as a strategy for product diversification?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Would you agree that ASDA currently requires upgrading its R&D for innovative offerings aimed at influencing your choice of brand?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree

 

 

 

Qualitative Questionnaire

  1. How do you think brand image influences customers buying behaviour?
  2. In what ways have you been able to influence the buying behaviour of your customers through your current branding policies?
  3. Could you identify the factors upon which the customers buying behaviour of your products depends?
  4. How far are you content with the branding policies of ASDA aimed at influencing the buying behaviour?
  5. In what other ways can ASDA improve its brand image and enhance its customer loyalty to be able to build customer base?

 

 

 

 

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